High-Ranking Morsi Aide Calls Holocaust A Hoax

220px-MohamedMorsiP350px-Selection_Birkenau_rampFathi Shihab-Eddim, a senior aide to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi, has tackled a key problem for Holocaust deniers: where did all of the Jews go? His answer? America, of course.

Shihab-Eddim is responsible for appointing editors of all state-run Egyptian newspapers — a position that would normally require a degree of intellect and insight. Yet, Shihab-Eddim used the Holocaust Remembrance Day on Jan. 27 to explain his theory that this is one big hoax.

It appears that while one boat load of Jewish immigrants on the MS St. Louis were barred entry in various country including the U.S., six million Jews were secretly moved into the United States.

Shihab-Eddim stated that “The myth of the Holocaust is an industry that America invented. U.S. intelligence agencies in cooperation with their counterparts in allied nations during World War II created it [the Holocaust] to destroy the image of their opponents in Germany, and to justify war and massive destruction against military and civilian facilities of the Axis powers, and especially to hit Hiroshima and Nagasaki with the atomic bomb.” What is interesting is that I did not know that we needed an excuse for the destruction of the war since we did not start it. Moreover, the United States and its allies have been criticized for burying the evidence of the concentration camps to keep it from being a major issue in the war. Some Roosevelt officials like Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr. criticized the Administration for obstructing efforts to deal with the camps. It appears now, according to Shihab-Eddim, Morgenthau was just part of a ruse in writing private papers detailing these complaints.

220px-Rows_of_bodies_of_dead_inmates_fill_the_yard_of_Lager_Nordhausen,_a_Gestapo_concentration_campWhat is equally impressive is that we got the Germans to go along and all of those American GIs who liberated the camps — as well as a cast of thousands of emancipated individuals and corpses.

It appears that Egypt is moving to join Iran in making Holocaust a prominent part of its government. The absence of any response by Morsi leaves the impression that he either shares or tolerates such extreme views.


281 thoughts on “High-Ranking Morsi Aide Calls Holocaust A Hoax

  1. Sure….. He better be careful….. The tooth fairy does not like deniers…… Then again….. Sometimes you can’t fix stupid….

  2. What is interesting here is the psychology.

    There is a common human belief that it is impossible for an individual to be both a victim and a perpetrator and that it is impossible for a group of people to be both victims and perpetrators of crime.

    This belief in mutual exclusion explains Fathi Shihab-Eddim’s refusal to accept that the Holocaust actually occurred. In Palestine he sees Jews murdering, torturing and robbing Palestinians, thus it follows that Jews can never have been victims of crimes elsewhere and elsewhen, therefore the Holocaust did not happen.

    It is interesting that the same assumption underlies Israels belief in its right to confiscate the land of Palestine and ethnically cleanse it of its indigenous people. Jew were victims of the holocaust, therefore other Jews such as the Israelis cannot be criminals and therefore nothing that they do to the Palestinians can be a crime or even wrong.

  3. There is this minute a large portion of the Egyptian population vehemently opposed and fighting back against his sort. I support them.

  4. @Carlyle Moulton
    It is heart-warming that you are so worried (possessed?) with the Jews in Judea (the land you for some reason call Palestine).

    I wish you would have had the same worries for the people in the countries you plundered recently (Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya), the hundreds of thousands of people you murdered there, and keep killing there, as well as in Pakistan, Mali, Syria and many other regions.

    But I can’t expect that from such a righteous individual as you, can I?

  5. The US props up Hosni Barbaric’s regime for 30 years, and people are surprised there is a fascist theocracy replacing it?

    Apparently, 1979 is too far back in history before 1981, otherwise people would remember the islamic regime in Iran happened because the US supported the Shah’s fascist regime for 26 years.

    If you want to blame someone, blame the US government and wall street for their “American interests first” attitude towards foreign policy.

  6. Carlyle,

    Forgive me if I’m wrong, but didn’t Australia form into a political entity as recently as 1901? Australia’s indigenous peoples are said to have lived there for more than 40,000 years. Now I may be presumptuous, but I also seem to recall that up until relatively recently those indigenous people were treated as inferior second class citizens by a white population whose claim to the land came by force. Many of those original settlers were deemed criminals by the English, who were using Australia as a Penal Colony. Now of course I don’t mean to imply that Aussies have no claim to their land, merely I was illustrating how conveniently others can point fingers against other nations, while enjoying the fruit of their own Country. By the same token the United States was also formed in a similar manner and has a rich history of oppressing people of color. Incidentally, do you have any idea what Australians indigenous people called their land? I’d like to use it in the future when referring to that glorious Continent.

  7. Egypt is Not a Pirate Territory. It is a sovereign nation state. Our Embassy is safe and well protected by their armed forces from the mobs. Right? If not then pull out now like Nixon’s father should have during conception. When it gets worse only fly over. Oh, and our aid to Egypt in the amount of billions so that they will abide by the Camp David accords? Cut em off now like President Midland Bush should have. Notice how I do not denigrate a former president by failing to put the word before the horse. Not like some people who just say Obama this or Obama that.

  8. Needed today: Congressional hearings on why we give “Aid” to this territory. Forget about Behghazi. Close the Embassy before its attacked.

  9. I always want to be amazed but am finding my thought goes to “so, Im not surprised. which of course doesnt help when the myth seems to be taking a firmer hold and more seem to be willing to not only embrace but find no shame, embarrassment, whatever in making the statement.
    I remember a few years back talking to a very bright Brazilian woman. Her husband was a major journalist n Brazil, they would have dinner with the president, etc (so they traveled in high circles). She said to me, in regards to some remark I made that all the newspapers and banks are owned by the jews. I told her that was patently false. Gave her some proof of names etc. It did not matter. To her, an educated woman herself,, this was the truth and no amount of truth would make har accept it as false.

  10. Fathi Shihab-Eddim is merely engaging in a ongoing technique in the Middle East which is de-legitimizing the history of the Jews. The claim is that the Jewish People have no historical heritage in the Middle East, even though there is now DNA evidence that shows their Middle Eastern origins. Now as a blond, blue-eyed Jew, who most people took for Polish or Irish, I’m sure that there are many non-Jewish strains in my genetic heritage. The overall picture though, is that the origins of the Jewish people are tied to the ME. However,
    from the perspective of those who want Israel to become on-existent, it is necessary to de-legitimize All of Jewish history.

    The problem with this reasoning is that it is counter historical in terms of Greek, Roman and Arabic historical documentation of the presence of Jews in the ME. However, when there are political aims to be achieved why let a little history get in the way? Now as a Jew myself I’ve ever agreed with the eugenicist idea that Jews are a race. We are a religion and we are a distinct ethnicity, that exists as part of the Human Race and our cultural heritage dates back to at least 1,000 BCE in the land know today as Israel.

  11. What Mike said.

    Seems that some officials in the Egyptian gov’t are starting a pogrom against truth and reality. I fear it will broaden its scope in time if not put into check.

  12. An anti-semite used to be someone that doesn’t like Jews. Now it’s someone that Jews don’t like.

    Hold your fire. Half my relatives are members of the tribe, and yes, the evidence of a Jewish holocaust is exceedingly slim. Israel needs to “discover” long lost documents that prove Hitler ordered six million gassed, not merely sent to work camps.

  13. Bill McW,
    More documents………seriously. Perhaps you never saw the film footage of Eisenhower “touring” Aushwitz, or the other documentary footage from the other camps. I guess you supposed the stacks of naked bodies piled like cordwood were some nifty special effects?

  14. Don’t we have enough people already calling the Holocaust a hoax to have this idiot now adding to it? I don’t think if they got strapped into a chair and were made to watch the horrendous footage they’d change their mind. They are willfully blind and intent on causing outrage. Many conspiracy theorists are and we don’t have to look as far as Iran and Egypt to find them.

  15. Mike,
    Bill McW wasn’t there when Aushwitz was liberated so it must not be true. I worked a few people in Skokie who still had the tattooed numbers on their arms. It took my breath away to see it for the first time.

  16. ElsieDL contributed:
    Don’t we have enough people already calling the Holocaust a hoax to have this idiot now adding to it? I don’t think if they got strapped into a chair and were made to watch the horrendous footage they’d change their mind.
    It is certainly worth a try Elsie, worked for Alex … Bill, this one is for you. Und Für Elise I mean “Elsie”

  17. Raff,

    History gets re-written as generation pass. The history of WWIi is barely taught anymore and since the Shoah is only one grisly part of that history it is covered only perfunctorially these days. I grew up seeing the extensive footage from the death camps and reading the history of the war. This era is one where people lean on political views, rather than knowledge for their historical bulwarks.


    Great clip, great if unsettling movie.

  18. Deaths in slave labor camps do not prove a holocaust. Check your logic course.

    Neither does tatooed numbers on people in Skokie. You need to check YOUR logic course too.

    When you can provide some credible evidence that Hitler killed six million people in death camps, I’ll stop reminding you that your logic is no better than that of any other FOX viewer.

  19. bill,

    There is nothing wrong with the logic.

    a) Hitler ordered his henchman Reinhardt Heydrich to set up both slave labor and extermination camps.
    b) Those camps were filled with Jews, Roma, homosexuals, the handicapped and political dissenters.
    c) When the Allies freed these camps, they found over six million bodies of prisoners either worked to death or outright killed by camp staff.

    This is a perfect example of the transitive postulate; a=b, b=c, ∴ a=c; which leads to the conclusion ∴ Hitler ordered his henchman Reinhardt Heydrich to set up both slave labor and extermination camps filled with Jews, Roma, homosexuals, the handicapped and political dissenters and when operations closed as Allies freed these camps, they found over six million bodies of prisoners either worked to death or outright killed by camp staff and the bodies were Jews, Roma, homosexuals, the handicapped and political dissenters. It is textbook basic linear causality.

    Broken down to the level of a basic syllogism, the logic still holds.

    A: All work and extermination camps were ordered by Hitler.
    B: Over 6 million dead Jews, Roma, homosexuals, the handicapped and political dissenters were found dead at the camps.
    ∴ Hitler ordered the death of over 6 million dead Jews, Roma, homosexuals, the handicapped and political dissenters were found dead at the camps.

    Their logic is sound. Your logic is non-existent.

    Then again, you think we haven’t been to the moon when we can see the landing sites through a telescope, so I don’t expect logic to have anything to do with what you think about the Holocaust either.

  20. “When you can provide some credible evidence that Hitler killed six million people in death camps, I’ll stop reminding you that your logic is no better than that of any other FOX viewer.”

    Bill McW,

    The responsibility is on you, not me, to provide the credible evidence.

    However, let me assume for a second that 6 million Jews weren’t murdered in what you call “slave labor” camps, what exactly does that prove in your mind? Let’s say that only 600,000 Jews were murdered what is your implication if that were so? Let’s say that only 60,000 Jews were murdered, what then is your implication?

    As for my logic, it is quite sound, thank you. Now in your intimating that my mind is as closed as a FOX viewer, I would answer that there are some on the Left, perhaps yourself for instance, who are as ignorant as the average FOX viewer because of the same problem, though different politics. The ignorance of the average FOX viewer, and perhaps yourself, is caused by a mindless dedication to a political viewpoint that allows for no straying from the path of
    the “party line”. In this instance, in light of your lack of exposition, I assume that you don’t believe in the right of Israel to exist and so MUST deny any factor that might justify its existence. Now while I personally support Israel I don’t argue about the right of its existence, any more than I would the right of existence of most nations which were founded today. I certainly could make a similar argument to yours about many of the Arab States right to existence, given how they came to be. I also think that given the insane treatment of their female population and their draconian Sharia Law that one could clearly argue about their human rights violations. It just seems that never comes up from those who so ardently support the on-existence of Israel and that is something known as blind hypocrisy.

  21. M.S.

    I won’t respond to your false charge about Israel, but I also don’t agree with your claims about 600K Jews or 6K Jews being murdered. There’s simply no evidence for that. And in case you need to be told this, the fact that x number of people died in the prison labor camps, or Concentration camps – if that makes them sound more ominous – isn’t proof they were murdered.

    Like most zealots, of course you believe your logic is “quite sound”, but that doesn’t mean it is.

  22. The number is 6 million plus and the logic is diagrammed above in a manner consistent with both logic and mathematics, bill.

    murder /ˈməːdə/, n.,

    the unlawful premeditated killing of one human being by another:

    The facts are that in 1942, the Nazis implemented Endlösung der Judenfrage (The Final Solution for the Jewish Question) as designed and coordinated by Reinhardt Heydrich at the order of Hitler. The first step in the plan was Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard), implemented in the Polish camps Treblinka, Bełżec, Chełmno and Sobibor. On October, 13, 1941, SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik was given a verbal order (by Heinrich Himmler) to start construction of the death camps outlined in Heydrich’s Endlösung der Judenfrage which called for building gas chambers where prisoners were gassed with Zyklon B, a cyanide solution. Where construction of gas chamber was falling behind or not practical, gas trucks were used where the exhaust from the engines was pumped back into the cargo area to kill the prisoners. And that was just the start.

    Early in the operation, the bodies were buried in mass graves and covered with lime but as the Allies approached and the programs were accelerated, the Nazis started burying the bodies in open pits and burning them to hide the evidence of what they were doing.

    When you round up prisoners and put them a room which you then fill with cyanide gas? Or when you put them in a truck and suffocate them with carbon monoxide? That’s murder. It’s also murder when you work and/or starve a prisoner to death.

    You wouldn’t know logic let alone evidence if it bit you on the ass but you do seem to fall for every lame-brained idiotic conspiracy theory out there.

    Good for you.

  23. Bill

    Even in trying to respect your attempt at logic you claim there is no evidence of 6M persons murdered at the concentration camps, yet you freely state that these persons were incarcerated at slave labor camps. Are you also of the opinion that nobody there had died either. Do you also recognize that nobody in those camps wanted to go there and were essentially kidnapped and while being held against their will they died.

    In criminal law there is a thing called a felony murder statute. That is where a person dies while the suspect is committing a felony, that death becomes a murder. So if the people in those camps were kidnapped by the state and they died as a result then their death was a murder. Are these included in your statistics?

    So you want documents do you. How about pulling a few million documents that were entered and reviewed during the Nuremburg Trials that show irrefutable evidence of the gassings, murderous medical experiments, etc. Since you want documents, there it is. But I know that you are going to come up with some empty position that these documents are all false, probably because on your your associates on stormfront.org told you they were.

    Also, where was it that these millions of persons went to eh? They were snatched from their homes by the German government or their proxies, trucked away, and they disappeared. (even from the point of view of their logic that they were not murdered) Ok , Where did these people go? Did every single one of them conspire to hide out in the US and Isreal and and agree to keep their mouth shut, keeping the same lie that they were just on vacation with the Nazis or whatever?

    The evidence is clear and proven. You on the other hand choose to deny any fact that disproves your baseless position.

    I have a suggestion if you are so solid in your conviction. I invite you to fly over to any large city in Germany and look for a building with a sign out from that reads “Polizeidienststelle” and hold out a big poster that reads “The holocaust is a lie. Hitler did not murder six million Jews.”

    I will even translate it into German for you, just to help you in your endeavours. “Der Holocaust ist eine Lüge. Hitler nicht ermorden sechs Millionen Juden. Verhaften Sie mich bitte.”

    Hope that works out for you.

  24. Gene,
    Don’t forget, the Nazi death machine exterminated an estimated 12 million people, about half of them Jews. Just for being Jews. The rest were a mix of “undesirables” such as the mentally ill, handicapped and homosexual. Not to mention the political enemies and intellectuals deemed to be a threat to the Reich.

    This kind of CT is personally offensive to me, since I have met some survivors of the camps, as well as some of the soldiers who liberated them. One of my friends, Kirby Cowan, was one of the “Lost Airmen of Buchenwald.” Kirby died recently. I would have liked to see bill mcwilliams tell Kirby he was imagining things. Bill would have been picking his teeth off the floor for the rest of the day.

  25. Bill mcW,
    Visit th holocaust museum I DC or even the one in Skokie and you can see for yourself. If your eyes are open. And yes, the nazi ID numbers on the survivors arms is additional evidence.

  26. raff,
    Here is the roster of the unwilling members of the KLB (Konzentrations lager Buchenwald) Club. You can find Kirby in the list of Americans on that roster. One hell of a guy, but that experience never left him. I had dinner with Kirby and his wife about five years ago. Heroes never brag. bill mcwilliams and ilk are not fit to shine the shoes of all the Kirby Cowans who survived.


  27. Shall we debate the sun’s rising in the morning ? There is no evidence that it has risen except our eyes and no reason to believe it will rise tomorrow except our experience. if we eliminate our eyes and our experience then we can surmise exactly like ol’ Bill McW here.

  28. OS,

    I too have known both survivors and soldiers who liberated the camps. I concur in your analysis. Although the survivors would have most likely wept at bill’s ignorance instead of knocking him out. Anyone who thinks those people are lying is a fool. They say the eyes are the windows to the soul and if you know people who lived through it or saw the aftermath, you can see the scars in their eyes. In the case of survivors, they are as vivid as the tattoos. One of the reasons I’ll never get a tattoo is my friend Ben Edelbaum. He wrote a chilling book about his experiences titled, “Growing up in the Holocaust”. I knew him as a teen and at one point I was talking about getting a tattoo until Ben heard about it. I’ll never forget that discussion. The Holocaust was far too real to be ignored or denied. bill thinking the moon landing was hoaxed was cute but harmless. His denial of the Holocaust is neither and just as offensive as Shihab-Eddim’s blabbering idiocy.

  29. Gene,
    Airmen are a different breed. Besides flying, their favorite things are drinking, sex and fighting. In no particular order. One takes on an airman at their peril.

  30. OS,

    Take out the flying and the same goes for their ground crews. My grandfather wasn’t a pilot, but he was U.S. Army Air Corps.:mrgreen:

  31. it always amazes me how cavalierly the unaffected dismiss the suffering of those whose whole world was torn away by an evil most could not have fathomed before it appeared. To be sure it’s a disservice to the victims to deny the truth, but an even greater abuse of the self.

    “Above all, don’t lie to yourself. The man who lies to himself and listens to his own lie comes to a point that he cannot distinguish the truth within him, or around him, and so loses all respect for himself and for others.”

    ~Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov

  32. Maybe so Darren, but I’m all for that transporting back in time for some folks. I think that’s where they came from.

  33. OS:

    “If there is ever a meetup of Turley regulars, I look forward to meeting Darren.”


    We need a convention.

  34. For those contemplating air travel. The cheapest days to fly are Wednesday and Saturday. The best time to book a flight and get the best fare rate is late Thursday afternoon. If you book a non-refundable round trip three weeks or more in advance, you get the best rate.

    So, book your flight on a Thursday afternoon late, for at least 21 days later. Plan on leaving Wednesday and returning Saturday, or vice versa.

  35. What Darren said. If there is ever a meetup of Turley regulars, I look forward to meeting Darren.
    Likewise. Thank you

    I would enjoy such a meeting with the regs. Doesn’t matter much to me were since I would have to fly anyway considering my location.
    Gene ==> “I’m thinking there would be very little conventional about it.

    Exactly. That’s the spirit.

  36. Lots of arguments, just no credible proof to back them up. Assertions and claims don’t count.

    By the logic of some of the kool aid drinkers, the U.S. is operating similar
    Concentration camps where people are dying…in Guantanamo and at secret prisons in various countries around the world where we have good relations with their dictator. And, all of you who consider yourselves liberals
    must be awfully proud that President Blackbush reserves the right to imprison and murder even U.S. citizens…if such person(s) are deemed to be terrorists, and to keep things tidy, they use Drones as murder weapons delivery systems. Course, Bronco Bama is no Hitler. We all know that.

  37. bill:

    Ok, I’ll read it to you:

    1, RUDOLF FRANZ FERDINAND HOESS, being first duly sworn, depose and say as follows:

    1. I am forty­six years old, and have been a member of the NSDAPI since 1922; a member of the SS since 1934; a member of the Waffen­SS since 1939. I was a member from 1 December 1934 of the SS Guard Unit, the so­called Deathshead Formation (Totenkopf Verband).

    2. I have been constantly associated with the administration of concentration camps since 1934, serving at Dachau until 1938; then as Adjutant in Sachsenhausen from 1938 to 1 May, 1940, when I was appointed Commandant of Auschwitz. l commanded Auschwitz until 1 December,1943, and estimate that at least 2,500,000 victims were executed and exterminated there by gassing and burning, and at least another half million succumbed to starvation and disease, making a total dead of about 3,000,000. This figure represents about 70% or 80% of all persons sent to Auschwitz as prisoners, the remainder having been selected and used for slave labor in the concentration camp industries. Included among the executed and burnt were approximately 20,000 Russian prisoners of war (previously screened out of Prisoner of War cages by the Gestapo) who were delivered at Auschwitz in Wehrmacht transports operated by regular Wehrmacht officers and men. The remainder of the total number of victims included about 100,000 German Jews, and great numbers of citizens (mostly Jewish) from Holland, France, Belgium, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Greece, or other countries. We executed about 400,000 Hungarian Jews alone at Auschwitz in the summer of 1944.

    4. Mass executions by gassing commenced during the summer 1941 and continued until fall 1944.1 personally supervised executions at Auschwitz until the first of December 1943 and know by reason of my continued duties in the Inspectorate of Concentration Camps WVHA2 that these mass executions continued as stated above. All mass executions by gassing took place under the direct order, supervision and responsibility of RSHA.31 received all orders for carrying out these mass executions directly from RSHA.

    6. The “final solution” of the Jewish question meant the complete extermination of all Jews in Europe. l was ordered to establish extermination facilities at Auschwitz in June 1941. At that time there were already in the general govemment three other extermination camps; BELZEK, TREBLINKA and WOLZEK. These camps were under the Einsatzkommando of the Security Police and SD. I visited Treblinka to find out how they carried out their exterminations. The Camp Commandant at Treblinka told me that he had liquidated 80,000 in the course of one­half year. He was principally concerned with liquidating all the Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto. He used monoxide gas and I did not think that his methods were very efficient. So when I set up the extermination building at Auschwitz, l used Cyclon B, which was a crystallized Prussic Acid which we dropped into the death chamber from a small opening. It took from 3 to 15 minutes to kill the people in the death chamber depending upon climatic conditions. We knew when the people were dead because their screaming stopped. We usually waited about one­half hour before we opened the doors and removed the bodies. After the bodies were removed our special commandos took off the rings and extracted the gold from the teeth of the corpses.

    7. Another improvement we made over Treblinka was that we built our gas chambers to accommodate 2,000 people at one time, whereas at Treblinka their 10 gas chambers only accommodated 200 people each. The way we selected our victims was as follows: we had two SS doctors on duty at Auschwitz to examine the incoming transports of prisoners. The prisoners would be marched by one of the doctors who would make spot decisions as they walked by. Those who were fit for work were sent into the Camp. Others were sent immediately to the extermination plants. Children of tender years were invariably exterminated since by reason of their youth they were unable to work. Still another improvement we made over Treblinka was that at Treblinka the victims almost always knew that they were to be exterminated and at Auschwitz we endeavored to fool the victims into thinking that they were to go through a delousing process. Of course, frequently they realized our true intentions and we sometimes had riots and difficulties due to that fact. Very frequently women would hide their children under the clothes but of course when we found them we would send the children in to be exterminated. We were required to carry out these exterminations in secrecy but of course the foul and nauseating stench from the continuous burning of bodies permeated the entire area and all of the people living in the surrounding communities knew that exterminations were going on at Auschwitz .

    8. We received from time to time special prisoners from the local Gestapo office. The SS doctors killed such prisoners by injections of benzine. Doctors had orders to write ordinary death certificates and could put down any reason at all for the cause of death.

    9. From time to time we conducted medical experiments on women inmates, including sterilization and experiments relating to cancer. Most of the people who died under these experiments had been already condemned to death by the Gestapo.

    10. Rudolf Mildner was the chief of the Gestapo at Kattowicz and as such was head of the political department at Auschwitz which conducted third degree methods of interrogation from approximately March 1941 until September 1943. As such, he frequently sent prisoners to Auschwitz for incarceration or execution. He visited Auschwitz on several occasions. The Gestapo Court, the SS Standgericht, which tried persons accused of various crimes, such as escaping Prisoners of War, etc., frequently met within Auschwitz, and Mildner often attended the trial of such persons, who usually were executed in Auschwitz following their sentence. l showed Mildner throughout the extermination plant at Auschwitz and he was directly interested in it since he had to send the Jews from his territory for execution at Auschwitz.

    I understand English as it is written above. The above statements are true; this declaration is made by me voluntarily and without compulsion; after reading over the statement, I have signed and executed the same at Nurnberg, Germany on the fifth day of April 1946.
    Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Hoess, “Affidavit, 5 April 1946,” in Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945­1 October 1946 (Nuremberg: Secretariat of the International Military Tribunal, 1949), Doc. 3868­PS, vol. 33, 275­79.

  38. I take it that you are convinced the above is genuine and was not the product of any outside person etc. No torture, threats or drugs, either?

    Would you say the same about the “Protocols”?

    And even though the SSDI lists Adam Lanza’s death date as 12/13/12, you
    are pretty sure he personally killed 26 people the next day?

  39. Bill.

    I’ve tried to refrain from name calling as it is something our professor does not like on his website. But I can say as a matter of fact…

    You’re an idiot.

    Your own statements are proof enough. I suspect also, that you are not only a person who denies the holocaust, but probably one who sympathizes with the actions of tje Nazis. I evidence this by your reference to “President Blackbush” and “Bronco Bama”. Why? Because holocaust denial, racism, and such are often intertwined with groups that tend to align themselves with neo-nazis.

    And it was not Kool Aid that those folks who died at the behest of Jim Jones in Jonestown Guyana , it was Flavoraid. And yes, it was laced with cyanide, just like the Zyklon -B in the SS gas chambers. Freudian slip?

    And you say that President Obama was no hitler. I’m sure in your mind hitler was a great civic leader and inspiration.

  40. Oh, and yes, holocaust deniers are, without question, anti-Semites. Otherwise, of all the things in the world they could choose to be concerned about, why settle on holocaust denial?

  41. bw:

    “I take it that you are convinced the above is genuine and was not the product of any outside person etc. No torture, threats or drugs, either?”


    Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proofs not mere speculation. I await your contrary affidavits that were likewise accepted into the official record.

    Like the esteemed Mr. Stevenson I’m prepared to wait until Hell freezes over.

  42. Bill McW,

    I feel bad for the “members of the tribe” who you claim as relatives and in truth I think you are lying about that connection. Something that I’ve amost never done here is accuse someone who opposes Israel’s existence as anti-Jewish. In you case I won’t make an exception. However, I do accuse you of being a proven hater of Jews by your own words. Anyone who looks to the “protocols” hates Jews because they believe in a made up, poorly written fantasy. You have a right to hate whoever you please, but I in turn don’t hate you for your bigotry, I just think you’re pathetic.

  43. Mark suggested:
    I vote Lexington, Kentucky. I love that town in May.
    Sounds good for me. I haven’t been to Kentucky, but would like to visit there. I

  44. Conspiracy theories! When confessions, mountains of historical and forensic evidence and many thousands of witnesses just aren’t enough!

    Next up on This Old Tin Hat, is your dentist planting tracking devices in your teeth for the CIA? Do the Nazis have a secret Antarctic base? Are Michael Jackson and LaToya Jackson the same person? Is Sonny really cuckcoo for Cocoa Puffs?

  45. Mespo,
    I like the Lexington idea!
    By the way Bill McW,
    don’t let the facts disturb you too much. Reality is sometimes a cold slap in the face. By the way, the sun does rise in the East and sets in the West.

  46. can someone please explain to me how we now for a fact 6 million souls were destroyed? Did the Nazis keep exact records? And how many bodies were cremated? 6 million is probably the low end of what Hitler and the Nazis did to humanity, those are murders for which there was irrefutable evidence.

  47. Billy McWilhelm:

    I must concur with Darren, you are an idiot. Although associating you with idiots gives them an undeserved bad rap.

  48. doubt it. most of the records are from camps. einsatzgruppen following behind front line troops would kill whoever they thought would be a problem. disposal of bodies wasn’t a problem because they wanted the populace to see them.

  49. Bill McWilliams wrote “Like most zealots, of course you believe your logic is “quite sound”, but that doesn’t mean it is.” Yep, Bill, you may feel your logic is quite sound, but it isn’t.

  50. Bron,

    Implementing the Final Solution was a decision in part driven by the SS death squads activity. Why? They were using too many bullets needed by the war effort. Gassing the Jews was simply more efficient.

  51. The sun (SON) rises in the east and sets in the west means the world doesn’t spin on it’s axis, and if I performed one miracle and it was denied then I owe this world nothing. the wasted miracles were all performed in public, and witnessed by people who refuse to speak openly, and the church will set and do nothing while trying to wait out the storm of GOD.

  52. I am late with my reply on this thread.
    @ Darren: Interesting clip, thanks! BTW, I like “Fur Elise” a lot; nice piece of music. One of my brothers earned first price in piano in Belgium as a teenager and he used to play it for me all the time.

  53. Bill

    I can assure you that I have no worries about being a labeled a Conspiracy Theorist by anyone who has any credibility. But, I read the link you provided.

    Sorry to say, it isn’t going to help anybody who perpetuates any of these conspiracy theory fantasies. My favorite part was from the author in the top line. Essentially he said that if nobody responds to those suggested comebacks, they have won the argument. The reality often is the other person likely just gave up trying to convince the conspiracy theorist they were wrong and got tired and bored and just went away.

  54. Darren, Just had that in an FB “conversation” about Kerry being a coward, traitor and helping the enemy.He said same thing when I said “I am out of the conversation”. “Then you must not be able to refute me., he replied, yeah. right.

  55. Darren –

    Okay, so you don’t consider yourself to be a conspiracy theorist. Me neither, but I do like learning about conspiracies such as 9/11, the assassination of JFK, RFK, MLK, Senator Wellstone, Sandy Hook etc.

  56. “Essentially he said that if nobody responds to those suggested comebacks, they have won the argument.”

    The informal logical fallacy of argument from silence.

  57. Is that a confession, Gene? Sure sounds like that’s what it is. Do you also believe the 9/11 conspiracy theory George Bush promoted? What about the Kennedy hits? I’ll stop there to give you time to explain your theories about those events. Add in Sandy Hook if you’d care to. Tell us how Adam Lanza died on 12/13/12, then killed all those people the next day, supposedly with an assault rifle – that was found in a car trunk. Aren’t you the least bit curious about these kinds of things?

  58. No, bill. Your boy is the one making the fallacy not me. I have nothing to confess. I’m not the one making extraordinary claims without extraordinary proofs. That’s the problem with you conspiracy nuts: you’re proof – when it exists – is shit by any reasonable evidentiary standard. It’s also usually backed by poor or non-existent logic and often couched in terms that can fairly be described as delusional. The mere fact that you think we haven’t been to the Moon or that the Holocaust didn’t really happen – despite mountains of actual credible evidence that says you’re wrong – is nothing less than an indication that you’re delusional and/or dumb as a bag of hammers. Quite frankly, I wish you’d go to a more appropriate forum for your bullshit like Alex Jones or WND. You’re wasting our time.

    And if any of this offends you? I sincerely hope it pisses you off. I don’t care what Holocaust deniers think. The Moon hoaxer thing was kind of cute, but Holocaust deniers are simply ignorant jackasses and I wish – like Darren – that you could go back in time and work a Sonderkommando detail just so you’d know in your bones how utterly wrong and stupid you really are.

    However, delusional people think they are always right in believing in their delusions as anosognosia is simply part of their condition. They simply aren’t aware they are crazy.

  59. Lots of sound and fury, Gene, but no evidence. Do you learn those kinds of tactics from far right-wing sites, or are you yourself a right-winger, ’cause
    Gene, that’s exactly how they argue (sic).

    Well, your silence suggests you DO believe the bush 9/11 conspiracy theory theory and I guess you didn’t know that the HSCA concluded there was a conspiracy to assassinate President Kennedy.

    Maybe you can do better with the Apollo Moon hoaxes. I assume you know where to find NASA-approved propaganda for true believers – or do you need some help finding them. And Gene, do try to include at least a little bit of substance THIS time. All those ad-hominems are cute, but they don’t exactly make you sound like someone who believes they should be taken seriously.

    Here you go: http://davesweb.cnchost.com/Apollo1.html

  60. You can assume wtf ever you like, bill. You’ve already made an ass out of yourself.

    You and your idiot theories are a waste of time.

  61. Why are you such a sore looser, Gene? You just need to learn how to
    deal with new information without letting it frighten you.

  62. bill mcwilliams, you are an embarrassment to yourself and this site. If you think you have somehow overwhelmed Gene with whatever the heck it is you think is logical argument, you are even more clueless than my earlier impression.

    As I said earlier, I actually know people who have been in the camps, but were liberated before they were murdered by Hitler’s psychopathic thugs. You are unfit to even shine their shoes.

    You seem to be often wrong, but never uncertain.

  63. OS — you are proof that if you want to make someone mad, tell them a lie.
    If you want to make them furious, tell them the truth.

    I really am surprised at how many liberals (sic) here are unable/unwilling to
    discuss issues – particularly those that are in conflict with state media propaganda.

    You need to get out of your comfort zone and get exposed to some new ideas. You seem stuck back in the Reagan era.

  64. On second thought, I DO give a sh!t what you think. It does matter and is deeply offensive to the memory of the 12 million murdered by the Nazis, six million of them Jews.

  65. Bill

    You just don’t get it. A person that is so infatuated with “show me the proof” and when someone does, such as suggesting that you look at the mountains of evidence from every credible historical and government source in the western world, all the eyewitness testimony, all the physical evidence as to the events of the holocaust and you point to one link on the internet and claim the former is irrelevant and therefore the holocaust never happened.

    Then on top of that, you claimed in one of your replies here that the 911 conspiracy was linked to President Obama, and later it was President George Bush. You cannot even get what you proffer to be fact correctly without goofing that up. At least if you are going to blow hot air try to get get your own information correct.

    Later you accuse Otteray of being on the straight and narrow and he needs to get exposed to some new ideas. But you in your hypocritical approach to the truth you cannot, or I should say will not, even learn from anyone that tells you something different than your foolish adherence to fantastic claims and laughable conclusions.

    Your truth compass has its rose reversed, because it seems much of what you claim is exactly the opposite of what it truly is, and when you point to someone else as being wrong, it is you that is wrong for the same reason. Maybe it is due to the CIA taking over the South Pole at the same time the USAF turned on the HAARP Array in Alaska to reverse the polarity of the earth. I don’t know, maybe you do, or some link on the Art Bell website proves it.

    Well it is apparent to all here, except for yourself, that this conversation is just going to go nowhere because you are going to hold fast to your convictions and everyone else is going to choose reality.

  66. as i boy scout in the early to mid 70’s i recall the was some controversy at the time concerning hypothermia. they were just beginning to understand how someone could die of exposure when the temperature wasn’t anywhere close to freezing. the relationship of wind on body temps. only problem was most of the work done on the subject were nazi death camp experiments.

    the problem was the ethics of using data derived from such a source.

    it was resolved because many camp survivors felt if any good should come from that knowledge it should be used.

    at least that’s how i remember it. its been awhile.

  67. A confession (sic) written by who really knows who – is no more credible than the “Elders of Zion” hoax.

    The evidentiary proof of the “never again” holocaust is no more credible than the Palestine holocaust – or the Armenian Holocaust, for that matter.

    Tons of people claimed to have seen or know someone who says they saw planes crash into the WTC and the Pentagon, but two of those flights weren’t even scheduled for 9/11, and the planes weren’t even deregistered until 2005.

    But don’t let the facts trump your belief in the Bush 9/11 fairy tale.

    Turn off the teevee and do some research. Bush lied to you.

  68. Blah Blah Blah.— All Fluff, No Stuff. Do over – you are getting worse and worse.

    BBC TV announcer said WTC 7 had collapsed – even as the camera behind her showed a live image of the building STILL STANDING. 9/11 was an even bigger hoax (inside job) than the Apollo Moon landings hoax.

  69. Bill

    Your head is buried so far in the sand the bottoms of your feet are getting sunburned. Gene’s video characterizes what you say quite accurately.

    Now you are going about this 911 hoax thing that a 10 year old could see as being rather childish.

    Now you are inferring that the 911 thing was a big hoax and that “tons of people claim to have seen the planes crash into the WTC and the pentagon, but those plaes were not even scheduled.” Well I have a piece of information for you. (despite the fact it was all over the world this information of what happened) My own brother in law was working at the Pentagon when the jet crashed into it. It was only luck that he was not killed. He was scheduled to work in the section that got hit and the day before his boss changed their work schedule to another area. He was in the building when it was attacked and there was no question it happened.

    Two or three weeks later, I was in Arlington VA. My wife and I were at Arlington Cemetery with her brother visiting the gravesite of her father and mother. While there a person could look right across a freeway and see the side of the pentagon with a large gaping blasted out hole there. There were three funerals going on for at least three service members who had died in the attack about a quarter mile away. I saw this with my own eyes but I suppose this is not good enough for you.

    Yep, according to your delusion it couldn’t have happened because it was not a scheduled flight or the tail number of the aircraft was still registered.

    But having this self-actualized ignorance that you possess is good for something. People like you serve as a conduit for direct payment of cash from employers/welfare agencies straight into the hands of entrepreneurs who sell books and ads on websites about conspiracy theories or other poppycock. They know that there is a certain market segment that is so gullible they will believe anything if it is spoon fed to them a certain way. And you keep coming back for more and more, and the profits go up every day because you are just another patsy to make money off of.

    So go ahead and declare victory in your asymmetric debate with Gene, Otteray, and the others here. It is rather pyrhhic, since this entire expedition has served to only to reveal to the internet how much of a consummate fool you are and a laughing stock to anybody who reads your jabberwocky. So from now on, anytime someone reads on another thread your name, your reputation is going to be following you. Good job.

  70. Mr. Smith:

    Have you ever read a book or even an article on logic and critical thinking?

    First, no said there weren’t people who died at the Pentagon. Lots of people died there on 9/11, as the result of the explosions that were set off in the building that just happened to have been the one where workers were investigating the missing trillion dollars from the Pentagon budget that Rumsfeld announced to the media. You didn’t hear any more about THAT after 9/11, did you?

    AA FL 77 wasn’t scheduled to fly on 9/11, and it continued to be in the AA fleet until 2005, yet you want people to believe it crashed into the Pentagon in 2001. “Willis, you got some splainin to do”.

    At least you are correct about “a side of the Pentagon with a large gaping blasted out hole there”. BLASTED out, not hit by AA FL77.

    Maybe there IS some hope for you, after all. Check out Dr. David Ray Griffin. He is one of the most knowledgeable experts on 9/11, Best of all, you can understand and follow his logic and evidence, even if you don’t know anything about logic or critical thinking.

  71. You lecturing anyone on logic and critical thinking after your fantastic display of the exact opposite on this thread is laughable, bill. You couldn’t even follow linear causality in an argument. That’s logic a child could follow if it wasn’t brain damaged. Read a book on logic and critical thinking? Several of us here could write a book on logic and critical thinking, including me. I was an A student in my doctorate level logic and reasoning courses. I’ve tutored the subject. And yet you – a Moon hoaxing Holocaust denier – has the audacity to suggest that you know anything about either logic or critical thinking?

    I’ll give you this. What you clearly lack in brains you make up for in balls and a completely unjustifiable overinflated assessment of your “skills” such as they are. When it comes to logic and critical thought, you’ve brought a pointed stick to a nuclear exchange. There are lawyers and scientists here, slick. We can argue circles around you if you were worth the time.

    But in the end, you’re not. People don’t want to engage your “arguments” because they are crap, not because they couldn’t stomp them into a puddle. Even people with bad ideas are often worth arguing with, like Bron on economics. People with ridiculous arguments are simply worthy of ridicule. I suggest you learn to live with that.

  72. Gene,

    You silly goose. All you’ve got are unfair, distorted ad hominems. If the above is your writing, I can’t help wondering if the doctorate you claim to have is a framed matchbook diploma from the LaSalle College of Barber Knowledge and Night Law School.

    Help your (proud, NATURALLY bald brother) out and tell us how AA FL 77 was still flying up until 2005, if it crashed into the Pentagon on 9/11/2001 and wasn’t even a scheduled flight on that day.

    Go ahead, “Doctor” G.

  73. Ad hominem is a form of ridicule and in your case it is neither unfair or distorted. As Bron noted, calling you an idiot gives idiots a bad name.

    As I said, ridiculous arguments deserve ridicule.

    That a ridiculous person is often responsible for ridiculous arguments is just the tao of things.

  74. Devastating logic there, G – but you must be embarrassed that a “doctor” such as yourself, is completely unable to address even simple questions which destroy the validity of the bush 9/11 conspiracy theory. To say nothing of your failure to rebut the biggest propaganda hoax of all time: the fake Apollo Moon landings.

    You continue to destroy your issues, G.

    Good luck to you – but I think you’re too far out there to ever wake up.

  75. Gene and Darren,

    When a person has a delusional belief, the delusion is next to impossible to dislodge without the use of either medication or electroshock therapy, and even then it sometimes does not work. The delusional person looks for every hint or scrap of “evidence” that their delusion is valid.

    I recall one guy who thought his parents were sending him messages by way of signboards along the highway. No amount of pointing out to him that his parents were not wealthy and no way could they have afforded thousands of signs did anything to dissuade him of his delusional belief. Finally, after a regimen of Thorazine and Haldol, did his delusions get better, but even then he was suspicious every time he saw a sign in a public place.

    There ya go. Often wrong, never uncertain, and keeps it in a logic-tight compartment.

  76. For those of you who can’t refute the evidence that shows 9/11 and The Apollo moon landings were a hoax, try “the amazing Randi’s forum JREF.
    There you will find plenty of right-wing propaganda talking points that attempt to prove they weren’t hoaxes.

    P.S. just overlook the pervert charges against the Amazing one.

  77. P.S. Just ignore that astronomer Phil Plait, author of the award-winning blog Bad Astronomy and president of the James Randi Educational Foundation spends a fair amount of time de-bunking the ridiculous statements of Moon hoaxers.

  78. BTW and speaking of logic, attempting to change the subject to hide that you didn’t sufficently respond to the evidence and logics presented in support of the original argument about the reality of the Holocaust is a technique often utilized by propagandists, conspiracy theorists and simpletons; an informal logical fallacy called argument by non-sequitur. In specific, it is the form of non-sequitur known as derailment.

    Bad Logic Bill Strikes Again.

  79. Figures that Phil Plait would find a home on a web site run by a guy who is an alleged homosexual pedophile. NASA sure knows how to pick defenders, don’t they!

    The only thing you cited as evidence in support of claims that Hitler killed six or 12 million Jews and others. is what you claim is a confession by some guy. You really expect anyone to believe that’s an authentic document? Don’t you know that no German governments have ever been found which order the mass killing of six or twelve million people?

    Now, the two holocausts – Palestine and Armenia are a different story. Only Israel and Turkey deny those, and Turkey has pretty much admitted that the Armenian holocaust is a historical fact.

    AA FL77, WTC 7, Apollo Moon landing hoaxes, and many others I mentioned simply can’t be refuted. Denied, yes. Ignored, certainly. But you can’t refute ’em, can you, phony doctor.

  80. I don’t really care what you believe, bill. What you’ve demonstrated you believe has no contact with reality. What follows is known as evidence in legal circles. What follows is expert testimony admissible in a court of law prepared by Christopher R. Browning, Professor of History at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington for the English case David Irving v Penguin Books and Deborah Lipstadt, [2000] EWHC QB 115. The substance of the case was libel and the claim based on the claims by British author David Irving that American author Deborah Lipstadt and her publisher Penguin Books claiming that Lipstadt had libeled him in her book “Denying the Holocaust”. Lipstadt had accused Irving of deliberately misrepresenting evidence to conform to his ideological viewpoint – much as you do when you deny the Holocaust. English libel law puts the burden of proof on the defence, meaning that it was up to Lipstadt and her publisher to prove that her claims were substantially true. It should be noted that the court ruled in Lipstadt’s favor. The decision can be found here. The trial transcripts can be found here. The expert testimony can be found here and reads as follows: _______________ “Evidence for the Implementation of the Final Solution Christopher R Browning (2000) Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, Washington Table of Contents I. Qualifications to give historical evidence II. Purpose of this Expert Opinion Report III. Implementation of the Final Solution IV. Documentary Evidence for the Systematic Mass Killing of Jews by Shooting A. Scale of Killing B. Escalation C. Camouflage Language D. Implications V. Evidence for the Killing of Jews through Gas in Chelmno, Semlin, and the Camps of Operation Reinhard (Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka) A. Documentary Evidence for the Emergence of a Program to Kill the Jews of Europe Europe B. Documentary Evidence Concerning the Gassing of Jews at Semlin, Chelmno, and on occupied Soviet territory in gas vans 1. Semlin 2. Chelmno 3. Einsatzgruppen on Soviet Territory C. Documentary Evidence concerning the Operation Reinhard Camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka D. Eyewitness Testimony concerning Gassing at Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka 1. German Visitors 2. German Camp Personnel 3. Non-German Guards 4. Nearby Poles 5. Jewish Escapees E. Documentary Evidence concerning Atkion Reinhard (alternatively spelled Reinhardt) I. Qualifications to give historical evidence: I am a Professor of History at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington, where I have taught since 1974. Beginning the the fall semester of 1999, I will take up a new position as the Frank Porter Graham Professor of History at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill. I received my B.A. in History from Oberlin Colege in 1967, and my M.A. and Ph.D. in Modern European History from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1968 and 1975 respectively. My scholarly career has been devoted to the study of National Socialist Germany and the Holocaust. I have published four books in this field: The Final Solution and the German Foreign Office (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1978); Fateful Months: Essays on the Emergence of the Final Solution (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985; revised and expanded edition, 1991); Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), with translations in German, Dutch, French, Italian, and Swedish; and The Path to Genocide (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), with translations in German and Italian. In addition I have published more than thirty-five articles and delivered my than thirty-five scholarly papers in the field. In early 1999 I delivered the George Macaulay Treveylan Lectures at Cambridge University. I have been engaged as an expert witness for five cases involving accusations of “war crimes” under the Nazi regime: the Wagner case in Australia, the Grujicic and Kisluk cases in Canada, and the Serafimovich and Sawoniuk cases in the United Kingdom. II. Purpose of the Expert Opinion Report I have been asked to write a report the addresses the following issues: 1. What is the documentary evidence concerning the implementation of a policy to kill the Jews on German-occupied Soviet territory through shooting. 2. What is the state of evidence concerning the implementation of a policy to kill Jews by means of gas in camps other than Auschwitz, and particularly in the camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. 3. What is the state of evidence concerning the emergence and existence of an overall plan of the Nazi regime to kill the Jews of Europe. 4. What is the state of evidence concerning the importance and purpose of the Wannsee Conference. 5. What is the state of evidence concerning the naming and purpose of “Operation Reinhard.” III. Implementation of the Final Solution The Nazi regime implemented the Final Solution or mass murder of the European Jews caught within its empire primarily by two methods–shooting and gassing. In the territories occupied by Germany after June 22, 1941 (with the exception of the district of Bialystok and partial exception of the district of Galicia), shooting was the most common method employed to kill Jews. The Jews of central and western Poland i.e. the Polish territory held by Germany since September 1939, and those deported from all over Europe to Poland during the war for the most part perished in the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka, and the gas vans of Chelmno. The evidence for these killing operations is of four types used commonly by scholars in the writing of history and judicial authorities in the conducting of trials: (1) contemporary documentation; (2) witness testimony recorded later (from survivors, perpetrators, and bystanders); (3) material evidence; and (4) circumstantial evidence. Because the Nazi regime sought to destroy not only the Jews of Europe but also the documentary evidence and material evidence (i.e. the mass graves and death camps), the evidence with which scholars and judicial authorities can work is both less than complete and not symmetrical for the two killing methods. In particular, the documentation of mass killing by shooting in the territories occupied by Germany after June 1941 is quite extensive, while documents relating to gassing in Poland is scant. For gassing, therefore, witness testimony and circumstantial evidence play a much larger role. IV. Documentary Evidence for Systematic Mass Killing of Jews by Shooting: Prior to the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Reinhard Heydrich (Himmler’s deputy and Chief of the Security Police and Security Service) assembled four mobile SS units known as Einsatzgruppen. They were designated A, B, C, and D for the Baltic, Central, Southern, and Romanian fronts respectively. The four Einsatzgruppen were in turn divided into smaller units referred to as Einsatzkommandos and Sonderkommandos. By agreement with the German army, these SS units were permitted to move forward with the advancing German military and operate up to the front lines. In the rear areas police functions were exercised by the Order Police, which included rural police stations of the Gendarmerie, urban police stations of the Schutzpolizei, mobile Police Battalions, and growing auxiliary police units composed of native recruits working on behalf of the Germans called Schutzmannschaften. Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS and Chief of German Police, also designated three Higher SS and Police Leaders (North, Central, and South) to coordinate all joint police activities behind the front. By far the richest collection of surviving documents relevant to the systematic mass murder of Jews through shooting are the reports from the Einsatzgruppen recorded in the so-called Ereignismeldungen or Event Reports compiled by Heydrich’s staff in Berlin. One hundred and ninety-five Event Reports were compiled between June 23, 1941, and April 24, 1942. [1] Eleven “Activity and Situation Reports (Tätigkeits- und Lageberichte) of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and SD in the USSR” were also compiled by Heydrich’s staff between July 31, 1941, and March 31, 1942. These Activity and Situation Reports summarized the contents of the Event Reports (bi-monthly for August and September 1941 and otherwise monthly) and were widely circulated throughout the German government. [2] Three other reports originating from the Einsatzgruppen (two by the commander of Einsatzgruppe A, Franz Stahlecker, [3] and one by his subordinate, the commander of Einsatzkommando 3, Karl Jäger, [4] as well as a series of orders from Heydrich are also significant. [5] One reason for this extensive reporting from the Einsatzgruppen and its systematic compilation in Berlin is revealed by a message from Heinrich Müller, the head of the Gestapo within Heydrich’s Security Police, to the four Einsatzgruppen on August 1, 1941. “The Führer is to be kept informed continually from here about the work of the Einsatzgruppen in the East.” [6] These collections of Einsatzgruppen documents certainly constitute the primary though not the only documentary sources for the killing operations into the spring of 1942. Thereafter, for contemporary written records, the historian is dependent upon a mixed collection of German documents originating from a number of sources, such as the Higher SS and Police, the civil administration of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, the mobile Police Battalions, the Gendarmerie stations, and the military. This report will not attempt a complete history of the destruction of Soviet Jewry as reflected in these German documents. Rather it will focus on four issues: (1) the scale of killing; (2) the steady escalation of the categories of Jews targeted for execution; (3) the use of open and camouflage language in the documents; and (4) the implications for our wider understanding of Nazi Jewish policy and the Final Solution. A. Scale of killing: The various reports and documents are incomplete concerning the total number of Jews and others executed by various German and collaborator units on occupied Soviet territory. Nonetheless, if one simply adds the summary numbers contained in the surviving documents, even the partial total gives a sense of the scale on which the killing was carried out. Einsatzgruppe A: Einsatzkommando 2 reported having shot 34,193 people by February 2, 1942. [7] Einsatzkommando 3 reported having killed 133,346 people by November 25, 1941. [8] Einsatzgruppe B reported on November 14, 1941, that its “total number” (Gesamtzahl) of “liquidations” (Liquidierungen) had reached 45,467. [9] Einsatzgruppe C: Sonderkommando 4a reported having shot 59,018 people as of November 40, 1941, and Sonderkommando 5 reported having shot 36,147 people as of December 7, 1941. [10] Einsatzgruppe D reported having shot 91,678 people as of April 8, 1942. [11] These cumulative totals do not distinguish between Jewish and non-Jewish victims. The Jäger Report (summarizing the activities of Einsatzkommando 3 in Lithuania up to December 1941), however, does identify all its victims, of which only 2,042 or barely 1.5% were non-Jewish (mostly identified as communist functionaries or mentally-ill). Einsatzgruppe D did not make this distinction in its cumulative totals, but it often did in its bi-weekly reports. For instance, on November 5, 1941, it reported killing 11,037 Jews and 31 communist officials in the previous two weeks. [12] For the period November 16-December 15, 1941, it reported executing 17,645 Jews, 2,504 Krimchaks (categorized racially as Jews), 824 Gypsies, and 212 communists. [13] For the last two weeks of December 1941, it reported shooting 3,176 Jews, 85 partisans, 12 looters, and 122 communists. [14] For the first two weeks of January 1942, it reported a rare reversal, in which 1,639 communists and partisans were reported shot along with 685 Jews. [15] For the latter half of January, it reported shooting 3,286 Jews, 152 communists, 84 partisans, and 79 looters and saboteurs, and asocials. [16] By the estimate of Einsatzgruppe C in late October, it had “liquidated” (liquidiert) some 80,000 people, of which 75,000 were Jews. [17] Sonderkommando 4a conceded that “the total number…of those executed included, in addition to a relatively small number of political functionaries, active communists, people guilty of sabotage, etc., above all Jews….” [18] Einsatzkommando 5 occasionally offered specific breakdowns of its victims as well. For instance, for the period November 2-18, 1941, it shot 10,650 Jews, 15 political officials, 21 saboteurs and looters, and 414 hostages. [19] For the week of November 23-30, 1941, it reported shooting 2,615 Jews, 64 political functionaries, and 46 saboteurs and looters. And for the following week it reported shooting 1,471 Jews, 60 political functionaries, and 47 saboteurs and looters. [20] In short, there is compelling evidence to conclude that the overwhelming majority of the people reported executed by the Einsatzgruppen were in fact Jews. In addition to giving figures for the four Einsatzgruppen themselves, the Event Reports occasionally record killings by other units as well, though in a much less complete fashion. For example, a police unit operating on Soviet territory just over the border from the town of Tilsit in East Prussia was credited with liquidating 3,302 persons in the first weeks after the invasion. [21] An additional Einsatzgruppe “for special purposes” operated in the areas immediately across the demarcation line in Belarus and the Ukraine once the original four Einsatzgruppen had moved further east. For the last ten days of July, this unit was credited with 3,947 executions. [22] For several periods in August, it was credited with an additional 12,652 killings. [23] The Higher SS and Police Leader South, Friedrich Jeckeln, was reported to have killed 44,125 persons, “mostly Jews,” in August. [24] (meist Juden) He was subsequently credited with 10,000 Jews in Dniepropetrovsk and 15,000 Jews in Rowno (the latter with help from EK 5). [25] Transferred to become Higher SS and Police Leader North in November 1941, the same Jeckeln was credited with reducing the Jewish population of Riga from 29,500 to 2,600 in late 1941. [26] For the period beyond the spring of 1942, other documents provide a glimpse of continued killing of Jews on a massive scale. On July 31, 1942, the head of the civil administration in western Belarus, Wilhelm Kube, reported from Minsk that in the previous ten weeks some 55,000 Jews had been killed in his district. [27] On December 26, 1942, the Higher SS and Police Leader for South Russia, the Ukraine, and the Northeast submitted a report on the campaign against the partisans for the three-month period from September 1 to December 1, 1942. Three days later, on December 29, 1942, the report was retyped in the so-called Führer-type (especially large type that Hitler could read without his glasses) and retitled: Reports to the Führer on combatting partisans. Report No. 51. Russia South, Ukraine, Bialystok. Results of the antipartisan campaign from 1.9. to 1.12.1942. The report was signed by Heinrich Himmler. On the top of the front page was the initialed hand-written note: “submitted 31.12.42.” The report noted for August, September, October, and November in the category of “bandits” a total of 1,337 killed in battle, 737 executed immediately after battle, and 7,828 executed after interrogation. In the category of “accomplices and suspects,” the report had two sub-categories: on a line for “executed,” it listed 14,256. On a separate line for “Jews executed,” it listed 363,211. [28] Why would Himmler include the killing of 363,211 Jews in a report to Hitler on anti-partisan warfare? According to Himmler’s appointment book, on December 18, 1941, he and Hitler had discussed the “Jewish question.” The result of their conversation was noted succinctly: “to be annihilated as partisans.” [29] (Als Partisanen auszurotten) In short, annihilating Jews and solving the so-called “Jewish question” under the cover of killing partisans was the agreed-upon convention between Hitler and Himmler. 1 Among his most important publications on the Holocaust are: The Final Solution and the German Foreign Office (1978), Fateful Months: Essays on the Emergence of the Final Solution (1985); Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (1992), The Path to Genocide (1992). 2 The War Path: Hitler’s Germany 1933-1939 (1977), Hitler’s War 1939-1942 (1977), Hitler’s War 1942-1945, Göring: A Biography (1989). For a comprehensive analysis of his writings see the report by the historian Richard J Evans, submitted at the trial. 3 See Hitler’s Role in the Persecution of the Nazi Regime by Peter Longerich, The Systematic Character of the Nationalist Socialist Policy for the Extermination of the Jews by Peter Longerich, and the Van Pelt Report. == Part II B. Escalation: The categories of Jews targeted for killing by the Germans steadily expanded. There is no surviving copy of pre-invasion orders to the Einsatzgruppen concerning the killing of Jews. The most specific document in this regard is a summary “in compressed form” (in gedrängter Form) of pre-invasion instructions to the Einsatzgruppen that Heydrich passed on to the Higher SS and Police Leaders of July 2, 1941. According to Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen had been instructed “to execute” (zu exekutieren) communist functionaries, “Jews in party and state positions” (Juden in Partei- und Staatsstellungen), and “other radical elements (saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins, agitators, etc.” They were also instructed to “promote” (fördern) pogroms, euphemistically dubbed “self-cleansing attempts” (Selbstreinigungsversuchen), by local anti-Jewish elements but “without trace” (spurenlos) of German involvement. Finally, Heydrich noted that Himmler had explicitly ordered that he be kept continuously and fully informed of the activities of the Einsatzgruppen. [30] On July 17, 1941, Heydrich issued another written order for the execution of all Jews found in German POW camps. [31] From the very beginning it was clear these instructions did not limit the shooting of Jews to those strictly in “party and state positions” but rather were understood and interpreted broadly to encompass the shooting of large numbers of adult male Jews. Moreover, this interpretation was immediately approved by Himmler and Heydrich. On June 24, 25, and 27, the Security Police in Tilsit organized three mass executions totalling 526 victims who were “primarily Jews.” (vorwiegend Juden) The reason given was that the Jewish population had supported the Red Army, and that in two incidents four Germans had been shot at from behind. In one execution every male Jew in the town of Krottingen was shot, and “only Jewish women and children were left.” (nur jüdischen Frauen und Kinder verblieben sind) Further executions were carried out in Augustowo. “The Reichsführer-SS [Himmler] and the Gruppenführer [Heydrich], who by coincidence were present there, had themselves briefed on the measures implemented by the Tilsit Security Police and approved them completely.” [32] By early July the Tilsit Security Police and its subordinate border police stations reported shooting a total of 1,743 people, and one week later this figure had increased to 3,302. [33] Numerous Einsatzgruppen reports of July indicate that adult male Jews, and particularly professionals and community leaders, were targeted. For example, for Einsatzgruppe C: “Leaders of Jewish intelligentsia (in particular teachers, lawyers, Soviet officials) liquidated.” [34] For Einsatzgruppe A: “Actions against the Jews are going on in an ever-increasing number. …The Latvians drive the Jewish families out of town, while they arrest the men. …The arrested Jewish men are shot without delay and interred in previously prepared graves.” [35] And for Einsatzgruppe B: “In Minsk, the entire Jewish intelligentsia has been liquidated (teachers, professors, lawyers, etc. except medical personnel).” [36] And: “The emphasis of the operational activity was directed first of all against the Jewish intelligentsia.” [37] As noted already, the Tilsit commando killed all the adult male Jews of Krottingen but not the Jewish women and children. Only Einsatzkommando 3, however, gave an exact statistical breakdown between male and female Jewish victims. For the period July 22-August 3, 1941, it reported killing 1,349 male Jews and 172 female Jews. [38] The escalation of the killing campaign to include Jewish women and children began in early August 1941, with clear impetus from the top SS leaders. When the 2nd SS Cavalry Regiment was preparing to sweep the Pripet Marshes, it received an “explicit order” (ausdrücklicher Befehl des RF-SS) from Himmler on August 1, 1941: “All Jews must be shot. Drive the female Jews into the swamp.” [39] The reply of SS-Sturmbannführer Magill demonstrated that he fully understood the purpose of Himmler’s order, namely the killing of Jewish women and children through drowning, and he explained the inadequacy of the method: “Driving women and children into the swamps did not have the intended success, because the swamps were not so deep that a sinking under could occur.” [40] The War Diary of Police Battalion 322 shows a similar transition. In early August its third company carried out executions of all adult male Jews but still spared Jewish women and children on its march from Bialystok to Minsk. Then the chief of the Order Police met with Higher SS and Police Leader von dem Bach-Zelewski in Minsk on August 29, and the following day Police Battalion 322 was assigned to a “thorough Jewish action” (gründliche Judenaktion) or roundup in the Minsk. On September 1 third company took part in the execution of the Jews who had been seized, including 64 Jewish women. The inclusion of Jewish women was justified by their alleged failure to wear the Jewish star. By early October the Battalion was shooting Jews “of both sexes” (beiderlei Geschlechts) without providing any explanation or rationalization. [41] Once again the detailed statistics of Jäger’s Einsatzkommando provide the clearest evidence of the transition. On August 6, 1941, Jäger was informed by Stahlecker that the latter had received “general orders from above that cannot be discussed in writing.” [42] Beginning on August 15, 1941, Jäger’s statistics demonstrate a sharp increase in the number of Jews being shot and the inclusion of large numbers of Jewish women and children. [43] Beginning in late September, the killing campaign escalated once again when entire communities of Jews (with the exception of indispensable skilled workers) were killed in so-called “large-scale actions.” (Grossaktionen) On September 19, following a decision “to liquidate the Jews of Zhitomir definitively and radically,” the ghetto was emptied and 3,145 Jews were shot. The massacre of over 33,000 Jews in Kiev followed on September 29-30. [44] “On November 6 and 7, 1941, the action against Jews that had been prepared for some time was carried out in Rovno, where about 15,000 Jews were shot.” [45] Beginning on November 30, 1941, the Higher SS and Police Leader North reduced the Jewish population of the Riga ghetto from 29,500 to 2,600. [46] In December Einsatzgruppe B reported the elimination of the Bobruisk and Vitebsk ghettos through the shooting of 5,281 and 4,090 Jews respectively. [47] In early December 1941 Einsatzgruppe D noted that some 10,000 Jews lived in Simpferpol; two months later, it noted that almost 10,000 Jews had been executed there. [48] Such actions aiming at total extermination of the Jewish population were not limited to large cities. Following killing actions in smaller cities and rural areas, entire towns and then even entire regions were repeatedly proclaimed “free of Jews.” [49] In early 1942, Heydrich reported: “While the Jewish question in the Ostland (by which he presumably meant the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) can be seen as practically solved and cleansed, progress continues to be made on the clarification of this problem on other occupied territories in the east.” [50] Outside the Baltic the pace of killing slowed temporarily in the winter of 1941-42 for two reasons. As SS-Sturmbannführer Hofmann, head of the Security Service in Minsk, explained to a meeting of officials from the civil administration: At present a complete liquidation of the Jews is not possible due to the frost, because the ground is too frozen to dig pits which would then be available as mass graves for the Jews. A complete eradication of the Jews was also not possible, because workers were still needed from among the ranks of the Jews. Nonetheless, Hofmann assured his listeners that “in the spring large-scale executions would be initiated again.” [51] With the warming weather in the spring of 1942, large-scale killing did indeed begin again. On March 2-3, 1942, 5,721 Jews were executed in Minsk, Vileyka, and Baranovichi, and later in the month 15,000 Jews were killed in Chevron. [52] As noted from the Kube’s report of July 31, 1942, on the killing of 55,000 Jews in six weeks in the Minsk region, and “Report No.51 for the Führer” on the execution of 363,211 Jews in the Ukraine and Bialystok in the four months of August through November, the killing was particularly intense in the summer and fall of 1942. At this point, even the Jewish skilled workers important to the German war economy were no longer spared, as can be seen from documentation relating to the killing of the Jews in the region of Brest-Litovsk in the fall of 1942. Informed of the impending “overall resettlement of the Jews” (generelle Umsiedlung der Juden), the SS and Polizeistandortführer in Brest-Litovsk, Friedrich Wilhelm Rohde, pleaded: “Insofar as the Jewish question is solved in Brest, I foresee severe economic damage resulting from the lack of lab or.” He was supported by the local commissioner (Gebietskommissar) Franz Burat: “Although the total resettlement of the Jews from the Kreisgebiet is desirable from the political standpoint, from the standpoint of labor mobilization, I must plead unconditionally for leaving the most needed artisans and manpower.” [53] These appeals were in vain. On October 15-16, 1942, the 20,000 Jews of Brest, including 9,000 workers, were shot. [54] The war diary and reports of Police Regiment 15 show that the Jews working in camps and on state farms in the region were also executed. [55] The totality with which Jewish labor was executed in this region can be seen from a subsequent report of the military armaments commando: “Then, in October 1942, there were large-scale Jewish evacuations in Volhynia as a result of which every Jew was removed from all the factories, and the factories came to a complete standstill for a shorter or longer time, or production dwindled to a mere fraction.” [56] In late July 1942 Himmler wrote emphatically: “The occupied eastern territories will be free of Jews. The carrying out of this very difficult order has been placed on my shoulders by the Führer. No one can take this responsibility from me.” [57] In the end, this included even the skilled Jewish workers providing irreplaceable manpower for the German war economy. C. Camouflage Langauge: The documents concerning the killing of Jews on occupied Soviet territory contain both open and camouflage language. Often the documents speak frankly of shootings, executions, extermination, liquidation, etc. Elsewhere they use words such as “special treatment,” “evacuation,” “deportation,” and “resettlement.” Many times one or more rationalizations are given to justify the mass killing of Jews as a response to or “reprisal” for some alleged provocation, and sometimes the documents claim that the Jews were “convicted” and the executions were carried out “according to martial law.” On other occasions, however, the goal of making these territories “free of Jews” through killing is openly admitted, and Jews are killed for no other reason than being Jewish. The large number of surviving documents for this region allows a more careful examination of this use of language. The implication that Jews were investigated, convicted, and shot “according to martial law” (standrechtlich) for alleged individual offenses is dispelled by Einsatzgruppe C’s own reporting. It noted that by late October 1941, 80,000 persons had been “liquidated.” However, only 8,000 of these were persons “who on the basis of investigation could be proven guilty of anti-German or bolshevik activities. The remainder were finished off on the basis of reprisal measures.” In the same report, Einsatzgruppe C reported that 75,000 of its 80,000 victims were Jews. Clearly the killing of the vast majority of these 75,000 Jews was not the result of individual offenses that led to investigation, conviction, and execution “according to martial law.” [58] Moreover, the claim of legal proceedings in connection with shootings was at times clearly formulaic and transparently specious. For instance, Sonderkommando 4a reported shooting 740 people in the first week of November “according to martial law.” Included in the list of victims, however, were only three political functionaries and one saboteur; the rest of the victims were 137 Jews and 599 mentally ill persons. [59] As indicated by Einsatzgruppe C, many killings of Jews were explained or justified as “reprisals,” that is collective punishment of the Jewish community for some alleged transgression by unidentified individuals. This involved a variety of accusations: refusing to work, incitement and spreading rumours, looting or plundering, supporting the partisans, and sabotage. On other occasions, the shooting of Jews was justified because of insufficient food supplies or because the Jews were deemed a source of infectious disease or were simply too old and unfit for work. [60] On two occasions in the Einsatzgruppen reports, however, the reasons for executions are spelled out systematically. Among the reasons listed by Einsatzgruppe C was quite simply: “Jews in general.” [61] (Juden allgemein) Einsatzgruppe A also listed reasons for shooting: alongside participation in the communist party, sedition, partisan activity, and espionage, was quite simply: “Belonging to the Jewish race.” [62] (Zugehörigkeit zur jüdischen Rasse) In short, Jews were to be killed for being Jewish, whether a pretext was listed or not. And in fact many executions were reported without any alleged justification whatsoever. Jews were killed for whom they were, not for what they had done. The term “special treatment” (Sonderbehandlung) appears in the Events Reports for the first time in No. 21 of July 13, 1941. The report notes that by July 8 the Einsatzkommando in Vilna had “liquidated” 321 Jews. Furthermore, the report explained how this was done, namely that 150 Lithuanians were recruited “to take part in the liquidation of the Jews. …They arrested the Jews and put them into concentration camps where they were subjected the same day to special treatment. (italics mine) This work has now begun, and thus about 500 Jews, saboteurs among them, are liquidated daily.” [63] Einsatzgruppe B reported in one paragraph that 640 Jews from the Nevel ghetto had been “liquidated.” In the very next paragraph it reported that in Janovichi 1,025 Jews “were subjected to special treatment.” [64] (wurden…sonderbehandelt) One month later Einsatzgruppe B reported a long list of actions, in which various terms were used interchangeably to indicate killing. In Belowchstchina 272 Jews were “liquidated.” (liquidiert) In Mogilev Einsatzkommando 8 and the Order Police “led 113 Jews to liquidation.” (brachte 113 Juden zur Liquidierung) In Schidow, 627 Jews were “liquidated. In a further action another 812 male and female persons were subjected to special treatment. Without exception they were racially and mentally inferior elements.” (liquidiert. In einer weiteren Aktion wurden noch 812 männliche und weibliche Personen der Sonderbehandlung unterzogen. Es handelte sich durchweg um rassisch und geistig minderwertige Elemente.) In Minsk, Einsatzkommando 8 “executed” (exekutierte) 41 persons, “primarily” (vorwiegend) Jews. In Talka, “222 Jews were led to liquidation.” (222 Juden zur Liquidierung gebracht wurden) Then in Marina-Gorka, “996 male and female Jews were subjected to special treatment.” (wurden 996 männliche und weibliche Juden der Sonderbehandlung unterzogen) In Borisov 83 Jews were “shot.” (erschossen) In Krupka and Sholpenitsche 912 and 833 Jews respectively were “liquidated.” (liquidiert) “The Rayon Krupka can now be considered free of Jews.” (Die Rayhon Krupka kann damit als judenfrei angesehen werden.) In Bobruisk Einsatzkommando 8 “executed” (exekutierte) 418 persons, including “rebellious Jews.” (widersetzlichen Juden) Then on October 8, 1941, the “total liquidation of the Jews in the ghetto of Vitebsk began. The number of Jews handed over to special treatment came to some 3,000.” (der restlosen Liquidierung der im Ghetto in Witebsk befindlichen Juden begonnen. Die Zahl der zur Sonderbehanldung gelangenden Juden beläuft sich auf etwa 3000.) In Ostrovno 169 Jews were “shot” (erschossen), and finally 52 Jews who had fled from Gorodok were “specially treated.” (sonderbehandelt) [65] A subsequent report stated: “In Vitebsk, the ghetto was evacuated. During this process a total of 4,090 Jews of both sexes were shot.” [66] (In Witebsk wurde das Ghetto geräumt, wobei insgesamt 4090 Juden beiderlei Geschlechts erschossen wurden.) In short, the term “special treatment” (and in this case also “evacuation”) was often used interchangeably with “liquidated,” “executed,” and “shot” in the reports, without any serious pretense that it was supposed to camouflage what was happening. “Resettlement” and “deportation” are also terms the appear in German documents in a similar fashion. For instance, the Gendarmerie district leader of Brest reported: “On October 15 and 16, 1942, the Jewish action was carried out in Brest-Litovsk. Simultaneously the complete resettlement of the Jews in the Kreisgebiet Brest-Litovsk also occurred. In all some 20,000 Jews have been resettled up until now.” Two pages later in the same report, he explained the activities of his police station using different language. “Participation in the action against the Jews in the city and Kreisgebiet Brest-Litovsk since October 15, 1942. Up until now some 20,000 Jews have been shot.” [67] Einsatzgruppe D reported that it had begun preparations for “the deportation of 12-13,000 Jews, Krimchaks, and Gypsies” in early December 1941. [68] In a later document, Einsatzgruppe D noted that “Krimchaks…usually counted as part of the Jewish population.” Thus the inclusion of the Krimchaks and Gypsies in the fate of the Jews occasioned no special notice among the population. “Their extermination, together with that of the actual Jews and the Gypsies in the Crimea, was accomplished for the most part by the beginning of December 1941.” [69] Thus SS documents for internal use openly employed terms like “special treatment,” “evacuation,” “resettlement,” and “deportation” interchangeably with execution, shooting, liquidation, and extermination. In documents for external use, however, such language was often used to camouflage what the SS was doing or intended to do. The most blatant and cynical act of deception and camouflage can be seen by juxtaposing the internal documents of Einsatzgruppe A with its communications to the civil administration in its region in August 1941. On July 27, 1941, the Reichskommissar for the Ostland, Hinrich Lohse, had issued a set of provisional guidelines for the treatment of the Jewish population without either consulting Stahlecker or delineating any role for the SS. Higher SS and Police Leader North, Hans Adolf Prützmann, urged Stahlecker to meet with Lohse to discuss the matter. [70] Stahlecker instead sent Jäger a three-page position page, which Jäger was to transmit to Lohse orally, as they were both in Kovno. [71] Stahlecker explained that Lohse’s guidelines, providing for ghettoization and forced labor of Jews at the moment and “resettlement” (Umsiedlung) later, were in conflict with the orders that had been given to Einsatzgruppe A. Instead of ghettoization in the cities, Stahlecker sketched out a plan of “Jewish reservation areas” (Judenreservatsräume) in the open spaces, where the Jews would be separated by sex to prevent further procreation. Work shops and factories would eventually be constructed there to exploit Jewish labor. The reservations would also facilitate “the later collective deportation of the Jews to a reservation outside Europe.” In a handwritten note at the end, Stahlecker added that the Lohse draft “to a great extent touches on general orders from higher authority to the Security Police that cannot be discussed in writing.” [72] This scenario of deporting the Jews first to reservations in the open spaces of the Ostland and then later out of Europe was designed only for outside consumption, as Stahlecker’s own documents show. In his summary report of October 15, 1941, he wrote: “It was expected from the start that the Jewish problem would not be solved solely through pogroms. On the other hand the goal of security police cleansing work, according to basic orders, was the most complete removal possible of the Jews. Extensive executions in the cities and flat lands were therefore carried out through special units, to whom selected manpower – in Lithuanaia partisan troops and in Latvia troops of the Latvian auxiliary police – were attached.” [73] Indeed, the nature of the orders Stahlecker had received from higher authority but could not put in writing are suggested by Jäger’s statistics: his unit began the systematic killing of Jewish women and children on August 15, just days after receiving Stahlecker’s position paper. [74] D. Implications: The systematic mass-murder of Jews on occupied Soviet territory primarily through shooting, with the explicit goal of making these territories “free of Jews,” is clearly visible in the surviving German documents. Both method and goal are transparent. The commanders in the field were explicitly told to report extensively, as both Hitler and Himmler were to be kept well informed. Clearly their reports were intended to show that government policy was being carried out with zeal and efficiency. Their actions were neither the unauthorized initiatives of a few rogue commanders nor the product of a sporadic breakdown in discipline in the heat of battle. Such a thorough documentation does not exist concerning the fate of the Jews from the rest of Europe. What can be learned from these documents concerning the intentions and actions of the regime and its use of language is essential, however, in interpreting the scantier documentation, evaluating the credibility of Eyewitness testimony, and drawing conclusions from circumstantial evidence. == Part III V. The Evidence for the Killing of Jews through Gas in Chelmno, Semlin, Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka: A. Documentary Evidence for the emergence of a program to kill the Jews of Europe: The Nazi program to murder all the Jews of Europe within the German grasp was called the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question” (Endlösung der Judenfrage). While historians who have done extensive archival research on Nazi Jewish policy agree that such a program was implemented by the Nazi regime, they are not unanimous in their conclusions about several important aspects of historical interpretation. In particular, they do not agree as to precisely when the Nazi regime decided upon a policy of systematic and total mass murder, and they do not agree upon Hitler’s precise role in this decision-making process. Such disagreements over historical interpretation are, of course, not at all unusual. On the contrary, it is a quite normal occurence. What follows is my interpretation concerning the emergence of the Final Solution; it is not shared in every aspect by other able and learned historians of the Holocaust. In the wake of the Kristallnacht pogrom, Hitler placed Hermann Göring in charge of coordinating Jewish policy. In turn, Göring delegated jurisdiction over Jewish policy that involved policing and emigration to the SS, and on January 24, 1939, Hermann Göring authorized Reinhard Heydrich to take charge of Jewish emigration from the Third Reich. [75] Heydrich’s jurisdiction expanded to include the expulsion of Jews, Poles, and Gypsies from the Polish territories incorporated into the Third Reich in the fall of 1939. In the spring of 1941 Heydrich began organizing the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and Security Service, which spearheaded the murderous attack on Soviet Jewry that summer. Then on July 31, 1941, Heydrich expanded his jurisdiction yet further, when he procured an authorization again signed by Göring, entrusting him with the task of making “all necessary preparations” for a “total solution to the Jewish question” (Gesamtlösung der Judenfrage) within the German sphere of influence in Europe. Heydrich was to submit a “comprehensive draft” (Gesamtentwurf) of the preliminary measures for this “Final Solution of the Jewish Question” (Endlösung der Judenfrage) promptly. [76] This was not an order for the Final Solution, but Heydrich, the man who was currently in charge of the Einsatzgruppen killing campaign on occupied Soviet territory, was now authorized to draw up plans concerning the fate of all other Jews under German control. No “comprehensive draft” for a Final Solution is among the surviving German documents found after the war. But other documents have survived that indicate a series of changes in Nazi Jewish policy in the fall of 1941 that, taken together, constituted a program for the systematic mass murder of European Jewry. The first was a reversal of Hitler’s previous policy that the deportation of German Jews would not take place until after the war. On September 18, 1941, Himmler informed the Gauleiter of the Warthegau, Arthur Greiser: “The Führer wishes that the Old Reich and Protectorate be emptied and freed of Jews from west to east as quickly as possible.” Thus Himmler intended, “as a first step” (als erste Stufe), to deport the Jews to the incorporated territories (especially the ghetto of Lodz) “in order to deport them yet further to the east the next spring.” [77] On October 10, Heydrich in Prague announced that Riga and Minsk would also be destinations for the deportation of German Jews. [78] The deportations, first to Lodz, then began on October 15. The second major change in German policy was the ban on Jewish emigration overseas. In August 1941 a number of Spanish Jews living in Paris had been arrested, which led the Spanish government to suggest the possibility of evacuating all Spanish Jews (some 2,000) to Spanish Morocco–a proposal endorsed by the German Foreign Office as fully in line with previous German policy of emigrating or expelling Jews overseas. On October 17, Heydrich blocked the Spanish proposal for two reasons. First, the Spanish would not effectively guard them in Morocco. Second, “In addition these Jews would also be too much out of the direct reach of the measures for a basic solution to the Jewish question to be enacted after the war.” [79] On October 23, 1941, the chief of the Gestapo, Heinrich Müller, then dispatched a circular to all police agencies announcing Himmler’s order that Jewish emigration was to be stopped. [80] What did the end of Jewish emigration overseas so that even Spanish Jews would not be “too much out of the direct reach of the measures for a basic solution to the Jewish question to be enacted after the war” mean? What did the deportation of German Jews first to Lodz, Minsk, and Riga and then “yet further east the next spring” mean? Did they mean nothing more than expulsion into eastern Russia or Siberia after the defeat of the Soviet Union still expected by the spring of 1942? A combination of three documents dating from the end of October 1941 suggest otherwise. Between October 18 and 21, 1941, the Foreign Office expert for Jewish affairs, Franz Rademacher, and Eichmann’s second deputy, Friedrich Suhr, visited Belgrade. After the trip Rademacher reported how the adult Jewish men in Serbia had been shot by the German army. Concerning the fate of the Jewish women, children, and elderly, Rademacher reported: “Then as soon as the technical possibility exists within the framework of the total solution to the Jewish question, the Jews will be deported by waterway to the reception camp in the east.” [81] In short, Jews deported from Europe were not simply going to be expelled into eastern Russia, but rather they were to be interned in a German “reception camp” not yet built. Furthermore, as this reception camp was for women, children, and elderly, it clearly was not a labor camp. A second relevant document is a short hand-written letter of October 23, 1941, that Franz Rademacher found waiting for him from the foreign editor of Der Stürmer, Paul Wurm, when he returned to Berlin. Wurm wrote: Dear Party Comrade Rademacher! On my return trip from Berlin I met an old party comrade, who works in the east on the settlement of the Jewish question. In the near future many of the Jewish vermin will be exterminated through special measures. [82] What did Wurm mean by “special measures” for the destruction of Jews in the east? On October 25, 1941, Rademacher’s counterpart in the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, Eberhard Wetzel, met first with Viktor Brack of the Führer Chancellery (where he was involved with the so-called euthanasia program for the killing of mentally- and physically handicapped patients in German hospitals and asylums) and then with Adolf Eichmann (Heydrich’s special advisor on Jewish policy). Wetzel then drafted a letter to be sent by his boss, Alfred Rosenberg, to Hinrich Lohse, who was not happy about the imminent deportation of German Jews to Riga. According to Wetzel, Brack declared himself ready to aid in the construction of “gassing apparatuses” (“Vergasungsapparate) on the spot in Riga. Eichmann confirmed to Wetzel that Jewish camps were about to be set up in Riga and Minsk to receive German Jews. Those capable of labor would be sent “to the east” later. Under the circumstances there were no objections “if those Jews who are not fit for work are removed by Brack’s device” in the meantime. [83] In short, surviving documents show that by late October 1941 the Nazi regime: 1) had ended a longstanding policy of creating a Europe free of Jews through emigration and expulsion overseas; 2) had begun deporting German Jews to the east into ghettos where they awaited deportation further east the following spring; 3) was planning a “reception camp” in the east for non-working Jewish women, children, and elderly; 4) was planning for the destruction of Jews through “special measures”; and 5) was discussing the construction of “gassing apparatuses” in Riga, so that German Jews incapable of work could be “removed” immediately. These documents suggest that a policy of systematic extermination, including deportation to reception camps and the use of gassing as a method of killing, was taking shape by late October 1941, even if it was not to be implemented until the following spring (after the expected end of the war). The statements of leading Nazis in the following months certainly point to a widening recognition that mass killing, not expulsion, was now the goal of the regime. On November 15, 1941, Himmler had a four-hour discussion with Alfred Rosenberg. [84] Three days later Rosenberg gave a “confidential” background report to the German press. The reporters were not yet to print the details of what was happening in the east, but they needed sufficient background so that the press could give its treatment the proper “color” (Farbe), he explained. Among the topics Rosenberg dealt with was the Jewish question. In the east some six million Jew still live, and this question can only be solved in a biological eradication of the entire Jewry of Europe. The Jewish question is only solved for Germany when the last Jew has left German territory, and for Europe when not a single Jew lives on the European continent up to the Urals. …for this reason it is necessary to expel them over the Urals or eradicate them in some other way. [85] On November 28, 1941, Hitler met with the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. Hitler stated: “Germany was resolved, step by step, to ask one European nation after the other to solve its Jewish problem, and at the proper time, direct a similar appeal to non-European nations as well.” When Germany had defeated the Soviet Union and broken through the Caucasus into the middle east, Germany would have no imperial goals of its own and would support Arab liberation, Hitler assured the Grand Mufti. But he did have one goal: “Germany’s objective would then be solely the destruction of the Jewish element residing in the Arab sphere under the protection of British power.” [86] In December 1941, after the Soviet counter-offensive around Moscow, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and the German declaration of war on the United States, there could be no doubt any longer that there would be no end to the war by the following spring. Yet Hitler made clear in a speech to the top echelons of the Nazi party on December 12, 1941, that this did not change the emerging German policy of systematic mass killing. Concerning the Jewish question, the Führer is determined to make a clean sweep. He prophesied that, if they were once again to cause a world war, the result would be their own destruction. That was no figure of speech. The world war is here, the destruction of the Jews must be the inevitable consequence. [87] Hans Frank, who attended this meeting, returned to the General Government and explained what he had learned in Berlin to his district governors and division leaders. We must put an end to the Jews, that I want to say quite openly. The Führer once spoke these words: If united Jewry should once more succeed in unleashing a world war, then the peoples who have been incited to this war will not be its only victims, because the Jew in Europe will also have found his end. …Before I continue to speak I would ask you to agree with me on the following principle: we want to have compassion only for the German people, otherwise for no one in the whole world. Others have had no compassion for us. As an old National Socialist, I must also say: if the Jewish tribe were to survive the war in Europe, while we had sacrificed our best blood for Europe’s preservation, then this war would be only a partial success. Thus vis-a-vis the Jews I will in principle proceed only on the assumption that they will disappear. They must go. I have entered into negotiations for the purpose of deporting them to the east. In January a large meeting will be convened in the Reich Security Main Office by SS-Obergruppenführer Heydrich. In any case a large migration of Jews will be set in motion. But what is to happen to the Jews? Do you believe that they will be lodged in settlements in the Ostland? In Berlin we were told: why all this trouble; we cannot use them in the Ostland or the Reichskommissariat either; liquidate them yourselves! Gentlemen, I must ask you, arm yourselves against any thoughts of compassion. We must destroy the Jews, wherever we encounter them and wherever it is possible, in order to preserve the entire structure of the Reich. Frank did not yet know how unprecedented destruction on this scale could be done, but he assured his audience that “nonetheless we will take some kind of action that will lead to a successful destruction, and indeed in conjunction with the important measures to be discussed in the Reich.” [88] What Frank called the “large meeting” in Berlin under the chairmanship of Heydrich, where “important measures” were to be discussed in January, had originally been scheduled for December 8, 1941, but was postponed until January 20, 1942. Known as the Wannsee Conference, it was attended by the State Secretaries of the ministries of the Interior (Stuckart), Justice (Freisler), the General Government (Bühler), and the Occupied Eastern Territories (Meyer and his deputy Leibbrandt), as well as the Office of the Four Year Plan (Neumann) and Party Chancellery (Klopfer), the Undersecretary of the Foreign Office (Luther), and ministerial director of the Reich Chancellery (Kritzinger). The State Secretaries, just beneath the cabinet minister level, were by protocol the highest ranking officials that Heydrich could invite to a meeting over which he–as Himmler’s deputy–would preside. Also attending were the heads of the Gestapo (Müller), the Race and Resettlement Main Office (Hofmann), and the Security Police in the General Government (Schöngarth), as well as Heydrich, Eichmann, and Rudolf Lange, commander of Einsatzkommando 2 in Latvia. Heydrich’s invitations to the meeting were accompanied by copies of his authorization, signed by Göring on July 31, 1941, to prepare a Final Solution to the Jewish question throughout Germany’s sphere of influence in Europe. There is no record of Heydrich having chaired any other meeting with such an illustrious list of leading officials of the Nazi regime in attendance in his entire career. Heydrich briefly reiterated his authority to prepare a European-wide Final Solution and reviewed the policy of emigration until its prohibition in the fall of 1941. Heydrich then stated: “In place of emigration, the evacuation of the Jews to the east has now emerged, after the appropriate prior approval of the Führer, as a further possible solution. A total of 11 million European Jews, including even those from neutral countries like Ireland, Switzerland, and Sweden, would be involved, according to Heydrich. The evacuations, however, were to be regarded “solely as temporary measures” (lediglich als Ausweichmöglichkeiten), for “practical experiences” (praktischen Erfahrungen) were already being gathered that would be of great significance for the “imminent” (kommende) Final Solution. Heydrich then went on to explain just what he meant by this. The Jews would be utilized for labor in the east. Separated by sex, the Jews capable of work will be led into these areas in large labor columns to build roads, whereby a large part will doubtless fall away through natural diminution. The remnant that finally survives all this, because it is undoubtedly a question of the part with the greatest resistance, will have to be treated accordingly, because this remnant, representing a natural selection, must be regarded as the germ cell of a new Jewish reconstruction if released. If the protocol indicates that Jews capable of work were to be subjected to such strenuous labor that most would die, and those who did not would be “treated accordingly,” it makes no mention of what was to happen to those Jews who were not capable of work to begin with. Bühler understood perfectly well that the Final Solution meant more than working Jews to death, for he urged that it begin in the General Government, because there was no transportation problem there and most of the Jews there were already incapable of work. The protocol summarized in detail lengthy discussions about policy toward Jews in mixed marriage and their children without resolution. On one point the protocol was exceptionally brief, however, and that concerned the question Frank had raised in December, namely how were the Jews to be destroyed. Without any explanation as to actual content of the discussion, the protocol merely noted cryptically: “Finally there was a discussion of the various types of possible solutions….” Thirty copies of the protocol of the Wannsee Conference were made, and the only surviving copy is the one that was sent by Heydrich to the Foreign Office on January 26, 1942. [89] Apparently the Reich Interior Ministry received a copy at the same time, for already at another meeting on January 29, 1942, its Jewish expert, Bernhard Lösener, made reference to the conference of January 20. [90] One notable Nazi leader had not sent a representative to the Wannsee Conference, namely Heydrich and Himmler’s disliked rival, Josef Goebbels of the Propaganda Ministry. It would appear that Goebbels received an expurgated version of the protocol only much later. He noted in his diary entry of March 7, 1942, concerning a report “from the SD and police regarding the Final Solution of the Jewish question.” He noted the Wannsee Conference figure of 11 million Jews in Europe and then wrote: “They will have to be concentrated later, to begin with, in the East; possibly an island, such as Madagascar can be assigned to them after the war.” [91] In reality, of course, the Jews were neither going to be concentrated “later,” nor sent to Madagascar after the war. The Jews of the Warthegau were already being gassed at this moment, and the gassing of Serbian Jews in the Semlin camp outside Belgrade was imminent. Moreover, the “concentration” of the Jews of Poland in the three tiny villages of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka was about to begin. B. Documentary Evidence concerning the gassing of Jews at Semlin, Chelmno, and on Soviet occupied territory in gas vans: A surviving file of documents [92] shows that gas vans called “special trucks” (Spezialwagen and Sonderwagen) were constructed and dispatched by Office II D 3 (Friedrich Pradel’s motorpool section of Walter Rauff’s division for technical affairs) within Heydrich’s Reich Security Main Office. Demand exceeded supply. In one surviving letter, Rauff informed the Criminal Technical Institute that the staff doctor at the Mauthausen concentration camp had requested a gas van. However, “The special trucks constructed by us are at this time all in action in accordance with the order of the Chief of the Security Police and SD.” Moreover, one would not be available for some time. Thus Rauff asked the Criminal Technical Institute, where the chief chemist Albert Widmann had earlier advised the euthanasia program on the use of carbon monoxide in gas chambers to kill mentally- and physically handicapped patients, for help. “Because I assume that the concentration camp Mauthausen cannot wait for an indefinite time for availability, I request the procurement of steel canisters of carbon monoxide or other remedies for implementation be initiated from your end.” [93] No gas van was available for Mauthausen at this time, because they were all in use in three other places: Semlin near Belgrade, Chelmno (Kulmhof) near Lodz, and with the Einsatzgruppen on occupied Soviet territory. 1. Semlin After the male adult Jews in Serbia had been shot in the fall of 1941, the women, children, and elderly were interned in a makeshift camp constructed in the old fair grounds of Semlin across the river from Belgrade. The planned deportation to a “reception camp” in the east never took place, and by late March 1942 the number of Jews in Semlin had reached 6,280. [94] On April 11, 1942, the head of the military administration in Serbia, Harald Turner, wrote to Himmler’s adjutant, Karl Wolff: Already some months ago I had everything that could be got hold of in the way of Jews in this land shot, and had all the Jewish women and children concentrated in a camp and at the same time, with the help of the SD, procured a ‘delousing vehicle’ that will now finally have carried out the clearing of the camp in some 14 days to 4 weeks…. [95] The 10-day reports of the military commander in Serbia document a steady decrease in the number of Jewish inmates in the Semlin camp between early March and late May. They register a population of 5,780 Jews–“mostly women and children”–in the “Jewish camp Semlin” on March 3, 1942, and this number declined to 491 Jews as of May 22. The reports cease to mention the presence of any Jews or even the existence of a “Jewish camp” in Semlin as of June. [96] On May 29, 1942, Franz Rademacher at the Jewish desk in the Foreign Office wrote: “The Jewish question in Serbia is no longer acute.” [97] Ten days later the head of the Security Police in Belgrade, Emanuel Schäfer, informed the commanding general in Serbia, Paul Bader, and the Military Commander Southeast, Walter Kuntze, that there was no longer a Jewish question in Serbia. [98] And Schäfer reported to Berlin, concerning the “special Saurer truck” (Spezialwagen-Saurer)–Saurer was the larger of the two truck models used for conversion into gas vans–that the two drivers, Goetz and Meyer, “had carried out their special task”, and therefore they and the truck were being sent back. [99] 2. Chelmno: Beginning in December 1941, Jews from the Lodz ghetto and other towns in the Warthegau were deported to the small village of Chelmno. On May 1, 1942, Arthur Greiser wrote to Himmler: “The special treatment of some 100,000 Jews in my territory in an action approved by you in agreement with the Chief of the Reich Security Main Office SS-Obergruppenführer Heydrich will be completed in the next two to three months.” [100] The completion of this task was not without incident, however, as can be seen in a report in the motor pool section of the RSHA of June 5, 1942, concerning technical alterations in the production of the “special trucks.” Since December 1941, for example, 97,000 were processed by three trucks in action, without any defects in the vehicles being encountered. The known explosion in Chelmno must be deemed an isolated case. Its cause must be traced to operator’s error. [101] The deportations from the Warthegau to Chelmno continued in 1942 until the provinces had been made free of Jews and the population of the Lodz ghetto had been reduced from more than 160,000 to less than 90,000. [102] 3. Einsatzgruppen On May 16, 1942, Dr. August Becker submitted a secret report to Walter Rauff concerning his inspection tour of the gas vans being used by the Einsatzgruppen. The large model Saurer trucks with Einsatzgruppen C and D, he reported, could travel cross country only in dry weather but were unusable after a rain. Moreover, the rough terrain had loosened seals and rivets, so that many trucks were no longer airtight. The trucks of Einsatzgruppe D had become so well known to the civilian population that they openly referred to them as “death trucks.” (Todeswagen) He had had them disguised by painting windows on the side, but he did not think this subterfuge would preserve secrecy for long. However, the greatest problems with the gas vans, according to Becker’s report, were not technical. The men suffered “enormous emotional and health injuries” (ungeheure seelische und gesundheitliche Schäden) and complained of headaches after each unloading. “The gassing is without exception not undertaken properly. In order to finish the job as quickly as possible, the drivers without exception open full throttle. For this reason those to be executed suffer death from suffocation and are not, as intended, put to sleep peacefully.” The result was gashlty–horribly distorted faces and bodies covered with excrement and vomit (verzerrte Gesichter und Ausscheidungen). [103] Despite such problems, the gas vans were still in demand. The chief of security police in Riga reported in mid-June 1942, one month after Becker’s report, that in German-occupied Belarus “a Jewish transport arrived weekly that had to be subjected to a special treatment. The 3 special trucks on hand there did not suffice for this purpose!” He thus requested an additional large Saurer model to add to the other Saurer and the two small Diamond model trucks. [104] ==” ___________________ End of first part of Browning Testimony (WordPress limitation), Continued in next post . . .
  81. Browning Testimony con’t.: “Part IV C. Documentary Evidence concerning the Camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka: If the documents concerning the Einsatzgruppen and the “special trucks” speak openly about the methods of killing, i.e. shooting and gassing, such is not the case with the documents concerning the camps located in the three tiny villages of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka, to which most Polish Jews were deported. Nonetheless, the quite scant surviving documentation makes clear that these were neither labor camps nor transit camps, and Jews were sent there simply to be killed. In March 1942 the Nazi regime began two simultaneous programs: the deportation of Jews from the Third Reich and Slovakia into the General Government, and the deportation of Jews in the General Government (initially from the districts of Lublin and Galicia) to a camp at Belzec–a small village on the Lublin side of the border between these two districts. The clearing of the Lublin ghetto began on March 16, as noted in a weekly report circulated by the propaganda division on March 21, 1942: Resettlement of the Jews. Since Monday, March 16, the ghetto of Lublin is being cleared of Jews. Daily some 2,000 Jews are seized and sent eastward. Only a small Jewish quarter is being preserved for the Jews who still work for German agencies. It is therefore reckoned that the action will be completed by April 1, with the deportation of 35-38,000 Jews. [105] In preparation for the simultaneous influx of Jewish transports from outside the Third Reich and Slovakia, Hermann Höfle on Globobnik’s staff met with Richard Türk of the Lublin district’s Department of Population and Welfare on March 16, 1942, the same day that the clearing of the Lublin ghetto began. Türk reported the results of the conversation: 1) It would be expedient to divide the Jews in the transports coming into the district of Lublin already at the departure station into those capable and those not capable of work. If this separation is not possible at the departure station, one must then switch over to dividing the transport in Lublin according to the above-mentioned viewpoint. 2) Jews not capable of work must all go to Belzec, the furthest border station in Kreis Zamosc. 3) Hauptsturmführer Höfle intends to build a large camp, in which the Jews capable of work can by classified according to profession and requisitioned. 4) Piaski will be freed of Polish Jews and become the collection point for Jews coming from the Reich. …In conclusion he declared, he could receive daily 4-5 transports of 1,000 at the end station of Belzec. These Jews would cross over the border and would never return again to the General Government. [106] On March 20, 1942, Türk again reported on a discussion that had taken place between Höfle and two Kreishauptmänner (county heads) in the Lublin district. Kreishauptmann Weienmeyer has as yet been able to learn nothing about final outcome of the deportation; all that is known is the existence of a collection camp some distance from the Belzec train station on the district border, that is entirely closed off, and the arrival of a SS-commando of some 60 men. [107] After the clearing of the Lublin ghetto, deportations were carried out in various parts of the Lublin district. For instance, the Kreishauptmann of Pulawy reported on May 13, 1941: “In the period from May 6-12 inclusive, 16,822 Jews from the Kreis Pulawy were expelled over the Bug on the instruction of the SS and Police Leader.” (The Bug River was the demarcation line between the German and Soviet occupation zones in 1939-41 and formed the boundary between the districts of Lublin and Galicia thereafter.) With the exception of sick and old Slovakian Jews in the ghetto of Opole, only working Jews remained. [108] In short, the German documents make clear that tens of thousands of Jews were being sent to the camp at Belzec in the spring months of 1942. There was no pretense that this was a work camp, for only non-working Jews were sent there. There was no pretense that such numbers of Jews could all remain in Belzec, in a tiny village guarded by a mere 60 men. Thus the explanation given by the SS was that these Jews were “expelled over the Bug,” that is sent across the border into the district of Galicia, with the guarantee that they would never return. Two factors make the acceptance of such an explanation utterly untenable. First, on March 27, 1942, shortly after the clearing of the Lublin ghetto began, Josef Goebbels confided to his diary about the fate of the non-working Jews, i.e. precisely those sent to Belzec: Beginning with Lublin, the Jews in the General Government are now being evacuated eastward. The procedure is a pretty barbaric one and not to be described here more definitely. Not much will remain of the Jews. On the whole it can be said about 60 percent of them will have to be liquidated whereas only about 40 percent can be used for forced labor. [109] Second, German documents from the district of Galicia make clear that not only were Jews not arriving in their district from the Lublin district via Belzec, but on the contrary, Jews were simultaneously being deported from the district of Galicia westward to Belzec. The Oberfeldkommandant in Lwow (Lemberg) reported on March 19, 1942: Within the Jewish population of Lemberg a noticeable unrest has spread in regard to a deportation action that has begun, through which some 30,000 elderly and other unemployed Jews shall be seized and allegedly transferred to a territory near Lublin. To what extent this evacuation can be equated with a decimation remains to be seen. [110] The Oberfeldkommandant reported the following month: The Jewish population displays the deepest depression, which is completely understandable because on the one hand in various locations in the district the well-known actions against the Jews occur again and on the other hand in Lemberg the temporarily interrupted resettlement of Jews resumes; in the meantime it is whispered also among the Jews that the evacuees never reach the resettlement territory that is alleged to them as the destination. [111] The deportations from Galicia broke off during the months of May, June, and July 1942, but resumed in August. In October the Oberfeldkommandant reported again: The resettlement actions continue undiminished. The Jews are informed of their fate. Indicative is the statement of a member of the Lwow Jewish council: We all carry our death certificates in our pocket–only the date of death is not yet filled out. [112] The trains deporting Jews from Galicia did indeed go to Belzec, as can be seen in the report of Reserve Lieutenant Westermann of the 7th company of Police Regiment 24, whose men helped round up the Jews in Kolomyja and nearby towns and then guarded two transports to Belzec on September 7 and 10, 1942. The first contained 4,769 Jews in 50 train cars and went without incident. The second involved 8,205 Jews. Many had been held for days without food and force-marched 35-50 kilometers to the train in blistering heat. They were then packed into train cars, in many cases 180-200 per car, virtually without ventilation. As Lieutenant Westermann concluded: “The ever greater panic spreading among the Jews due to the great heat, overloading of the train cars, and stink of the dead–when unloading the train cars some 2,000 Jews were found dead in the train–made the transport almost unworkable.” Nevertheless the train that left Kolomyja at 8:50 pm. on September 10 finally crawled into Belzec at 6:45 pm on September 11. [113] As in the rest of Hitler’s Europe, the Germans in Galicia were busy insuring that their district was becoming free of Jews. The SS and Police Leader, Friedrich Katzmann, reported that as of November 10, 1942, 254,989 Jews had been resettled. By June 23,1943, the total had reached 434,329 Jews “resettled” (ausgesiedelt) with only 21,000 Jews still in labor camps. [114] In short, the allegation that Belzec was a transit camp through which Jews were expelled from Lublin into Galicia is totally disproven by German documentation. Month after month, in train after train, tens of thousands of Jews were taken to the little village of Belzec, and the trains came from both Lublin and Cracow to the west and Galicia to the east. If Höfle clearly lied about the purpose of Belzec, in one regard he told the truth: with the exception of a handful of escapees, the Jews sent to Belzec never returned. The camp at Treblinka was located in a tiny village just off the main railline between Warsaw and Bialystok near the eastern border of the General Government. Massive deportations from Warsaw to Treblinka began on July 22, 1942, as can be seen in the letter from the State Secretary for the Transportation Ministry, Albert Ganzenmüller, to Himmler’s adjutant, Karl Wolff: “Since July 22, one train with 5,000 Jews departs daily via Malkinia to Treblinka. Moreover, twice per week a train with 5,000 Jews departs Przemysl for Belzec.” [115] When deportations from the city and surrounding district of Warsaw came to an end in early October, the district governor Fischer reported that a total of 400,000 Jews had been deported. [116] Surviving fragmentary train schedules also show that Jews were deported from northern Lublin district, Radom district, and the Bialystok district to Treblinka as well. [117] The deportations from Bialystok, a district east of Treblinka, are of special significance for two reasons. First, these deportations from Bialystok make clear that Treblinka was not a transit camp for the expulsion of Jews eastward from the General Government. Rather the tiny village of Treblinka, like Belzec, was a point at which transports of Jews converged from east and west. Moreover, the fate of the Bialystok Jews in the fall of 1942 was clearly stated in Himmler’s report to Hitler of December 31, 1942. The Jews of Bialystok were among the 363,211 “Jews executed.” The fate of the Jews sent to Treblinka is also reflected in a report noted in the October 10, 1942, entry to the War Diary of the Oberquartiermeister of the military commander in Poland. OK Ostrow reports that the Jews in Treblinka are not adequately buried and as a result an unbearable smell of cadavers pollutes the air. [118] Ostrow, it should be noted, was some 20 kilometers from Treblinka. The documentary evidence makes clear that Belzec and Treblinka were camps to which hundreds of thousands of Jews were sent to be killed, though without specifying the method of killing. The scant surviving documentary evidence concerning the purpose of Sobibor indicates that the Germans considered it in the same category as Treblinka and Belzec, but that it was inaccessible due to railline repairs during the peak months of the killing campaign of July-October 1942. Like Belzec, Sobibor received transports of Jews deemed incapable of work, as can be seen in the report of Lieutenant Fischmann of June 20, 1942. Fischmann commanded the police guard that accompanied a train that departed Vienna with 1,000 Jews from Vienna for the Lublin district. SS-Obersturmführer Pohl of Globocnik’s staff met the train in Lublin on June 16 and selected 51 Jews between the ages of 15 and 50, who were deemed capable of work. On June 17 Lieutenant Stangl took delivery of the remaining 949 Jews in Sobibor. [119] In the same letter in which Ganzenmüller informed Wolff of the daily transports from Warsaw to Treblinka and the twice-per-week transports from Przemysl to Belzec, he also noted that further transports to Sobibor were not possible until October due to construction on the railline. [120] The protocol of a meeting in Berlin on September 26 and 28, 1942, to plan allocation of transportation for the future “evacuation of 600,000 Jews” of the General Government noted: After the completion of the restoration of the line Lublin-Chelm, probably from November 1, 1942, the other urgent transports can also be carried out, namely: 1 train per day from the district of Radom to Sobibor; 1 train per day from the northern Lublin district to Belzec and 1 train per day from the central Lublin district to Sobibor…. [121] And in his promotion recommendations to Himmler’s chief of personnel, Herff, Globocnik included Franz Stangl, the commandant at Sobibor who was then transferred to Treblinka. According to Globocnik, Stangl was “the best camp commander, who had the greatest share of the entire action….” Included on the list of promotion recommendations for the SS-Sonderkommando “Einsatz Reinhard” were personnel from all three camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. [122] Clearly, Sobibor was a camp no different in purpose than Belzec and Treblinka. D. Eyewitness Testimony concerning Gassing at Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka: While surviving German documentation reveals that hundreds of thousands of Jews not considered essential for labor were sent to the three small villages of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka from areas both to the east and west and were never seen again, and moreover that the military 20 kilometers from Treblinka complained about the pestilential smell caused the inadequate burial of the Jews there, no contemporary document specifically states how the Jews sent to these three camps were killed. A very large body of testimony–from numerous German, Jewish, Polish, and Ukrainian Eyewitnesses–provides evidence that the Jews sent to Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka were killed in gas chambers with carbon monoxide from engine exhaust. As in any body of Eyewitness testimonies, there are errors and contradictions as well as both exaggerations and apologetic obfuscation and minimization, but in this case there is above all overwhelming concurrence on three facts: gas chambers existed in these camps, they were used to kill Jews, and the corpses of the murdered Jews were first buried and then later cremated. It is not possible in the framework of this report to identify, summarize, and analyze the individual testimony of each of more than one hundred relevant Eyewitnesses. I will instead identify five categories of Eyewitnesses and then provide examples of testimony from each category. Category I: German visitors to the camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. Category II: German personnel stationed in the camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. Category III: Ukrainian auxiliaries taken from POW camps, trained at Trawniki, and assigned as guards to these three camps. Category IV: Poles living in the immediate area of these three camps. Category V: Jewish escapees from these three camps. First Category: German Visitors The first category, testimonies of German visitors, is easily the smallest. The testimonies of three such visitors are very important, however. The first is Adolf Eichmann. In the late 1950’s he gave an interview to a Dutch journalist Willem Sassen and corrected the resulting transcript. A brief summary of the interview was published in Life Magazine. [123] After his arrest, he was interrogated extensively in Israel. [124] He composed his hand-written “Meine Memoiren.” [125] He prepared notes for his defense attorney, Servatius, that remained in the private papers or Nachlass of the latter that were donated to the Bundesarchiv. [126] He gave testimony in court. [127] And his widow, with the editorial help of the lawyer Rudolf Aschenauer, had a posthumous memoir published in 1980, entitled Ich Adolf Eichmann. Ein historischer Zeugenbericht, based primarily upon the Sassen transcripts. [128] In all of these testimonies, Eichmann confirmed that he had been in charge of organizing the deportation of Jews from all over Europe, in order for them to be killed in the death camps in Poland as part of the Final Solution. In several accounts he also described his visits to Auschwitz, Chelmno, Treblinka, and one other camp in the fall of 1941 whose name he did not remember (he remembered only that it had a more Polish-sounding name than Treblinka) but which fits the description of Belzec at that time. According to Eichmann, he was sent by Heydrich to Globocnik in Lublin to report on how Hitler’s order to kill the European Jews was going to be carried out. It was the fall of 1941, when the autumn colors were at their peak. Hermann Höfle on Globocnik’s staff drove him out of Lublin to a site where he was introduced to an Order Police captain. Eichmann and his escort then crossed the highway to a place where 2-3 wooden buildings were under construction. The Order Police captain explained to Eichmann that one building had to be made airtight to serve as a gas chamber, in which Jews would be killed by carbon monoxide exhaust from a Russian U-boat motor that would be attached. The camp was still empty and the motor was not yet there. In the following summer of 1942, Eichmann visited another camp, where he remembered the railway station with the sign Treblinka. Here he saw naked Jews standing in line behind the barbed wire about to be driven into the gas chambers. By his own account, he also witnessed the gassing of Jews in a gas van at Chelmno. In his hand-written notes to his attorney Servatius, he designated Chelmno as a “permanent gassing camp” (Ständiges Vergasungslager). Also in his hand-written notes in the Servatius papers, Eichmann noted that he had seen the two peasant huts converted to gas chambers at Birkenau, though here as elsewhere he vehemently denied the claim of Auschwitz commandant Rudolf Höss that he had played a key role in the selection of the gas chamber sites and gassing method there. The second German visitor was Kurt Gerstein, a covert anti-Nazi who infiltrated the SS and became head of the Disinfection Services of the Waffen-SS. According to his testimony, [129] he was ordered by Eichmann’s deputy, Rolf Günther, to take 100 kilos of prussic acid to Globocnik in Lublin. They were accompanied by a Professor of Hygiene at the University of Marburg/Lahn, Wilhelm Pfannenstiel. They arrived on August 17, 1942, and met with Globocnik, who boasted (falsely) of a recent visit by Hitler. According to Gerstein, Globocnik also claimed (with great exaggeration) that in Belzec, Treblinka, Sobibor respectively 15,000, 25,000, and 20,000 Jews were killed daily with “diesel exhaust gas.” (Dieselauspuffgasen) Gerstein’s task was to disinfect the huge amounts of clothing taken from the Jews, and on August 19, he and Pfannenstiel travelled to Belzec and were shown around the camp by SS-Hauptsturmführer Obermeyer. [130] On the following morning, August 20, they witnessed the arrival of a 45-wagon transport from Lwow (Lemberg) with 6,700 Jews, of whom 1,450 were already dead. The Jews were forced to undress (the piles of shoes were allegedly 25 meters high), the women’s hair was cut off, and then the naked Jews were driven between two barbed wire fences to the gas chambers by Ukrainian guards. An SS man offered soothing assurances that they should inhale deeply to prevent lung infection, and then the men would be sent to work. Approximately 750 Jews were driven into each of four gas chambers, measuring 5 x 5 meters apiece. For 2 hours and 49 minutes, SS Sergeant Heckenholt [131] struggled to start the engine. Pfannenstiel, looking through glass peep hole in the door of one of the gas chambers, commented that the Jews were weeping “as they do in the synagogue.” Finally, the engine started, and the gassing took 32 minutes. Then Jewish workers opened the outside doors to the gas chambers and took out the bodies. Before the corpses of the Jews were tossed into a large trench, they were searched for valuables and gold dental work was broken out. The following day Gerstein drove to Treblinka, where the gassing facilities were larger, and he saw “veritable mounds of clothing and underwear, 115 to 130 feet high.” At a dinner in the visitors’ honor, Pfannenstiel made a speech about “the greatness of the work” being done there. On the night of August 21-22, Gerstein travelled by train from Warsaw to Berlin, and accidently encountered the Secretary to the Swedish Embassy in Berlin, Göran von Otter. In a feverish conversation lasting hours, Gerstein told the Swede all he had just seen and urged him to make it known to the outside world. Von Otter later confirmed this encounter with Gerstein. [132] Gerstein wrote one handwritten French and two type-written German versions of this report in April 1945 and died in a French prison cell the following July. His death was ruled a suicide by French prison officials. A third Eyewitness account is that given by Professor Wilhelm Pfannenstiel in a series of depositions he gave to judicial authorities in Germany in the 1950’s. [133] Pfannenstiel claimed that Gerstein’s version was “false” and “full of exaggerations.” Günther did not accompany them to Lublin. He did not go to Treblinka after visiting Belzec and thus did not give a speech there. The gassing at Belzec had taken only 18 minutes, not 32 minutes, and he had not made any remark about the Jews weeping as they do in a synagogue. He did confirm that the Jews had to strip naked, the women had their hair cut, an SS officer made soothing remarks, the Jews were driven into four of six gas chambers in the building, exhaust gas from an engine was piped in, and gold teeth were taken from the corpses before they were stacked in a trench by Jews who did the “dirty work.” Many aspects of Gerstein’s testimony are unquestionably problematic. Several statements he attributes to Globocnik are clearly exagerrated or false, and it is not clear whether Gerstein or Globocnik was the faulty source. In other statements, such as the height of the piles of shoes and clothing at Belzec and Treblinka, Gerstein himself is clearly the source of exaggeration. Gerstein also added grossly exaggerated claims about matters to which he was not an Eyewitness, such as that a total of 25 million Jews and others were gassed. But in the essential issue, namely that he was in Belzec and witnessed the gassing of a transport of Jews from Lwow, his testimony is fully corroborated by Pfannenstiel. It is also corroborated by other categories of witnesses from Belzec. == Part V Second category:German Camp Personnel The second category of Eyewitnesses is comprised of Germans who were stationed at Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. Twenty-nine such German camp personnel were indicted and brought before German courts in the 1950’s and 1960’s. They all gave pre-trial depositions. Many claimed that they had had no choice but to carry out the duties that they had been assigned, and many denied that they had committed any harmful or malicious acts beyond routine compliance with their obligatory duties. But none of them denied that the camps were equipped with gas chambers, in which hundreds of thousands of Jews were killed. At least 26 of the 29 had prior experience in the so-called “euthanasia” program, in which German mentally- and physically handicapped were gassed in one of six “institutes” or killing centers in Germany. [134] Of these 29 men, Franz Stangl held the highest rank as commandant of first Sobibor and then Treblinka. Outside of judicial proceedings, he also gave extensive testimony in long interviews with the British journalist, Gitta Sereny, that are easily accessible in her book, Into That Darkness. [135] The testimony of Franz Suchomel, a guard at Treblinka, who was interviewed at length on hidden camera by Claude Lanzmann, can be seen and heard in latter’s documentary film Shoah. Among the judicial testimonies of the other 27 camp personnel brought to trial in Germany were those of Alfred Schluch, Hermann Gley, Erich Fuchs, Erich Bauer, and Heinrich Matthes. [136] Alfred Schluch had worked at the euthanasia institutes of Grafeneck and Hadamar prior to his assignment to Belzec in February or March 1942. He described the routine killing procedure of the Belzec camp as follows: After unloading, the ambulant Jews proceeded to the assembly place. At the unloading the Jews were told that they were going to be resettled and before that had to be bathed and disinfected. The speech was given by Wirth and also by his translator, a Jewish capo. Next the Jews were then led to the undressing barracks. In one of the barracks the men and in the other the Jewish women and children had to undress. After undressing the male Jews and the women with children were led separately through the tube. …My position in the tube was quite near the undressing barracks. Wirth had installed me there, because in his opinion I could have a pacifying effect on the Jews. I had to direct the Jews along the path to the gas chamber after they left the undressing barracks. I believe that I made the way to the gas chambers easier for the Jews, because they must have been convinced from my words or gestures that they were actually to be bathed. After the Jews had entered the gas chambers, the doors were tightly closed by Hackenholt himself or by the Ukrainians assigned to him. Then Hackenholt started the motor that was used for the gassing. After about 5 to 7 minutes–and I only estimate the length of time–the peephole into the gas chamber was looked through to establish whether everyone was dead. Only then were the outer doors opened and the gas chambers aired out. …After the gas chambers were aired out, a Jewish work commando under the direction of a capo arrived and took the corpses out of the chambers. I was also occasionally assigned to supervise at this place. Thus I can exactly describe the procedures, because I saw and experienced everything myself. The Jews had been very tightly packed into the gas chambers. For this reason the corpses did not lie on the ground, but all leaned in a jumble this way and that, the one backwards, the other forwards, one prone to the side, the other kneeling, each according to the space around. The corpses were at least partially besmirched with excrement and urine, others in part with saliva. The lips and nose tips of some of the corpses had turned blue. With some the eyes were closed, with others the eyes had rolled. The corpses were pulled out of the chambers and immediately examined by one of the dentists. The dentist removed rings from the fingers and pulled out gold teeth. The valuables recovered in this way were tossed into a box that had been provided. After this procedure the corpses were thrown into the large graves nearby. [137] Heinrich Gley arrived in Belzec in the summer of 1942 and was eventually assigned to the “cremation commando.” (Verbrennungskommando) Concerning the burning of the corpses, he testified: As I remember the gassing was stopped at the end of 1942, when there was snow already on the ground. Then the general exhumation and cremation of the corpses began; it might have lasted from November 1942 until March 1943. The cremation was carried out day and night without a break, and indeed at first at one and then later at two fire sites. It was possible to cremate some 2000 corpses at one fire site within 24 hours. About 4 weeks after the beginning of the cremation operation the second fire site was constructed. On average, therefore, some 300,000 corpses were cremated at the first site over 5 months, at the second site some 240,000 over 4 months. Naturally this is a matter of estimates based on averages. To figure the total number of corpses at 500,000 could be correct. [138] Erich Fuchs, who was stationed first at Belzec, gave the following testimony concerning the construction of the gassing facilities at Sobibor. On Wirth’s instructions I drove to Lemberg in a truck and picked up a carburator engine, that I transported back to Sobibor. …We unloaded the motor. It was a heavy Russian gasoline engine (probably a tank engine or tractor engine) with at least 200 PS (V-motor, 8 cylinder, water-cooled). We placed the motor on the a concrete base and installed the connection between the exhaust and the pipeline. Then we tested the motor. At first it did not work. I repaired the ignition and the valve with the result that the motor finally started up. The chemist, whom I already knew from Belzec, went into the gas chamber with a measuring instrument in order to test the concentration of gas. In conclusion a test gassing was then conducted. As best I remember, some 30-40 women were gassed in the chamber. [139] Erich Bauer testified to the gassing procedure at the Sobibor camp, where he served from April 1942 to November 1943. Perhaps 3 or 4 times I also led certain groups through the tube to the gas chambers. After all no member of the permanent staff in Sobibor could exempt himself over the course of time from having to perform this and all other functions occuring during the destruction process. It may sound astonishing that the Jews went unsuspecting to their death. Resistance occurred extremely seldom. The Jews only became suspicious when they were already in the gas chambers. At this point in time, however, there was no turning back. The chambers were densely packed. …The doors were sealed airtight and immediately the gassing procedure commenced. After some 20-30 minutes there was complete silence in the gas chambers; the people were gassed and dead. Then the chambers were opened, work Jews dragged the people who had been killed out of the gas chambers and transported the victims by means of lorry to the graves. Later the victims were cremated. [140] Heinrich Matthes was assigned to Treblinka in the summer of 1942. He testified: The entire time that I was in Treblinka, I served in the upper part of the camp. The upper part of the camp was that part of Treblinka in which the gas chambers were located and in which the corpses of the Jews who had been killed were at first put in graves and later were cremated. Matthes’ job was to supervise the Jewish workers in the upper camp. “These had to carry away the corpses and later to cremate the corpses. There were also work Jews, who had to break out the gold teeth of the corpses.” [141] All of these above testimonies of camp personnel were given to German judicial authorities in the course of pre-trial investigation. The testimonies were given under oath and signed, and those testifying had been advised of their right not to give self-incriminating testimony. Third category: Non-German Guards Approximately 30 Germans were stationed at each of the camps and held the key supervisory positions. More numerous were the guards, about 120 per camp, who were for the most part Ukrainians recruited out of the POW camps for captured Soviet soldiers and sent to a special SS training facility at Trawniki southeast of Lublin. Some of these men, having returned to the Soviet Union, gave testimony to German judicial investigators who were collecting evidence for the trial of Karl Streibel, the commandant of Trawniki. Others emigrated abroad, including to the U.S., where some of them faced judicial investigation by the Office of Special Investigations in the U.S. Department of Justice. Aleksandr Illarionwitsch Semigodow testified that he was captured at the outbreak of war in June 1941 and volunteered to serve with the Germans to escape a very probable death by starvation in the POW camp at Cholm. He was sent to Trawniki in March 1942, and then served at Belzec from August 1942 to March 1943. At first trains arrived daily, and in some cases even twice daily, and then the number of incoming transports gradually diminished. The Jews were killed in the six gas chambers, and the bodies were buried. Then in late fall, the graves were opened, and the burning of the corpses began. This was not finished until March 1943. [142] Captured in August 1941, Peter Petrowitsch Browzew was taken to Trawniki at the end of 1941 and assigned to Belzec in June 1942. About his experiences in Belzec, he gave the following testimony about procedures after the first small wooden building with three gas chambers had been replaced with a larger cement structure with six chambers: Upon the arrival of a train, several train cars at a time were uncoupled and brought into the death camp. In the camp the train car doors were opened, and the Jews were told that they had come to work and that now they would be taken to the bath and should hand over their valuables. Next they were told to undress. Then the Jews were led through a gate surrounded by barbed wire into a wooden barracks, where they undressed and where their hair was cut. No difference was made between men and women. They all had to undress in one room. Next they were led through the same gate to the gas chambers. There were six gas chambers, three on each side of the entrance. In general the chambers were usually crammed with some 200 Jews. The people were locked in the chambers for 10-15 minutes. Next the chambers were opened, and a Jewish work commando had to take the corpses to a grave already dug near the gas chambers on the grounds of the camp. However, before the corpses were removed from the gas chambers, one worker from the Jewish work commando tore out the gold teeth from the dead. The incoming transports of Jews came to an end in late 1942, and the burning of the buried corpses began. “The corpses were pulled out of the graves, they were decomposed. There were metal rails, wood, and everything was burned. 24 hours through, day and night, the corpses burned.” Then on February 3, 1943, Browzew escaped from Belzec and joined a partisan band. [143] Feodor Federenko gave sworn, pre-trial testimony on May 25, 1976, to American investigators in Hartford, Connecticut. He was captured by the Germans in July 1941 and eventually was sent to the large POW camp in Cholm. Here he was picked out of the camp and sent to Trawniki for training. In late August or early September 1942, he was assigned to Treblinka. He was asked: “Were you aware of the fact that thousands of Jews were being exterminated in Treblinka?” He answered, “Yes, I knew.” Asked if he was assigned to the forced labor camp or the camp “where they had gas chambers,” he replied: “I was where the gas chambers were.” [144] At his subsequent denaturalization hearing in June 1978, Fedorenko testified over three days in greater detail. He denied that he had actually entered the section of the camp where the gas chambers were located but admitted that he had once been posted on a guard tower overlooking this section of the camp. “I saw how they were loading up dead people, loading them on the stretchers. …And they were loading them in a hole.” Later in his testimony, he reconfirmed that this part of the camp “is where there was the workers that took the bodies and buried them or stacked them in the holes. This is where the gas chambers were.” Concerning the unloading of Jews from the trains, he testified: “Some were picked for work and the others, they went to the gas chambers.” [145] Fourth category: Nearby Poles Many Poles in the villages around these camps saw the endless flow of transports, smelled the terrible odors of the camps, and heard all kinds of rumors of how the Jews were killed, including not only by gas but also by steam and electricity. Some Polish witnesses had particular vantage points, which enabled them to know much more about the camps than other Poles in the surrounding areas. For instance, between November 1 and December 23, 1941, a small force of Polish workers was employed to construct the initial buildings, including the first small gas chamber with only three rooms, at Belzec. Stanislaw Kozak and Edward Ferens both testified immediately after the war about their construction work in Belzec. [146] According to Kozak sand was poured between the double walls of one small building, whose interior was partially covered with zinc sheeting. The building had three rooms, each with two doors, one entering from a interior corridor and the other exiting to the outside. The doors were very strong and covered with rubber; they opened outward and were secured with crossbars on the outside. When Edward Ferens asked the German supervisor the purpose of the building, the latter merely laughed. While the Poles worked on these buildings, the black-uniformed auxiliaries dug a large pit behind it. Beginning in March 1942 transports began arriving, sometimes 2-3 per day. In the fall the transports stopped, and an excavator was employed to open and empty the mass graves. For the next three months the terrible smell of burning bodies pervaded the area and could be detected up to 15 kilometers away. The camp was then dismantled. Jan Jrzowski and Jan Piwonski worked at the train station in Sobibor, directly across from the ramp where the transports for the camp were unloaded. [147] Three German officers arrived in the fall of 1941 and measured the station ramp. Construction on the camp began March 1942, and the observant Poles wondered about the arrival and unloading of large, heavy doors covered with rubber. The transports began arriving in April, and by fall the smell of decaying corpses was detectable. In October 1942 an excavator arrived. The graves were opened and the corpses burned. The smell of burning bodies reached Wlodawa 9 kilometers away. The fire within the camp could be seen clearly at night. On October 14, 1943, an uprising occurred in the camp, after which it was closed. Fifth category: Jewish Escapees Concerning the last category of Eyewitnesses, due to prisoner uprisings and breakouts in Treblinka and Sobibor, approximately 50 Jews from each camp survived the war. [148] Some testimonies were recorded even before the end of the war, [149] and one Treblinka survivor, Samuel Rajzman, testified very briefly before the International Military Tribunal at Nürnberg. [150] The testimonies of many others have subsequently been collected, especially at Yad Vashem, and many have been published. [151] The situation regarding Belzec is much different. Perhaps as many as six prisoners escaped individually from Belzec, [152] but only one, Rudolf Reder, has given extensive post-war testimony. [153] In his very early testimony of December 1945, Reder recounted how he had been deported from Lwow to Belzec on August 17, 1942, in a train of 50 cars, each crammed with 100 Jews. He was only one of eight prisoners selected as skilled workers to join the Jewish labor force in the camp that day. Working in the camp as a mechanic, for several months he operated the excavator that dug graves behind the gas chamber. He could see the gas chambers even more closely when he delivered “gasoline” (Benzin) to the engine room at the end of the corridor that ran between the three gas chambers on each side. He gave the following description: In these chambers the people were packed so tightly together, that even after death they were found in standing position. As soon as all chambers were crammed full, all the doors were tightly shut; ….then the motor was started. The work of the motor was watched over by the prisoner Moniek, a cabman from Cracow. The motor was always run exactly for 20 minutes, after which Moniek gave one of the machinists the signal to turn it off. After the motor had been turned off, on the order of Moniek the prisoners opened all the doors wide and pulled the dead in pairs out of the chambers with the help of straps placed around the hands of the corpses; the corpses were then pulled to the mass graves already dug out beforehand by machine. On the way between the ramp of the chamber and the grave, dentists pulled gold teeth from the corpses. In November 1942 Reder escaped his captors and survived in hiding in Lwow until the arrival of the Red Army. He emigrated to Canada in 1953. Once again, human memory is imperfect. The testimonies of both survivors and other witnesses to the events in Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka are no more immune to forgetfulness, error, exaggeration, distortion, and repression than Eyewitness accounts of other events in the past. They differ, for instance, on how long each gassing operation took, on the dimensions and capacity of the gas chambers, on the number of undressing barracks, and on the roles of particular individuals. Gerstein, citing Globocnik, claimed the camps used diesel motors, but witnesses who actually serviced the engines in Belzec and Sobibor (Reder and Fuchs) spoke of gasoline engines. Once again, however, without exception all concur on the vital issue at dispute, namely that Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka were death camps whose primary purpose was to kill in gas chambers through the carbon monoxide from engine exhaust, and that the hundreds of thousands of corpses of Jews killed there were first buried and then later cremated. E. Documentary Evidence concerning Aktion or Einsatz (Operation) Reinhard (alternatively spelled Reinhardt) The deportation of Jews to and killing of Jews in the camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka, as well as the confiscation of their property, became known as Operation Reinhard, under the command of Odilo Globocnik, the SS and Police Leader in the district of Lublin. The expression Operation Reinhard appears in only a few German documents. So little documentary evidence explicitly dealing with Operation Reinhard survived because it was intentionally and systematically destroyed in 1943 and 1944. This is clearly revealed in a letter from its director, Odilo Globocnik, to Heinrich Himmler of January 5, 1944. It was a cover letter for Globocnik’s submission of a final financial accounting of the program, for which Globocnik wanted a quick confirmation of financial propriety, given the “odium” (Globocnik’s own expression) that attached to his past reputation in financial matters. Globocnik gave another reason for urgently concluding an audit of the financial side of Operation Reinhard, namely that its “records must be destroyed as soon as possible, after the documents of all other work in this matter have already been destroyed.” [154] An early document mentioning “Einsatz Reinhard” dates from July 18, 1942. It is a form on which the personnel specially authorized “for the carrying-out of the work of the Jewish resettlement within the framework of ‘Operation Reinhard’ with the SS and Police Leader in the Lublin district” acknowledged having been oriented to specific rules of secrecy by SS-Hauptsturmführer Höfle on Globocnik’s staff. They were forbidden to make any communication, verbal or oral, concerning the “Jewish resettlement” (Judenumsiedlung) under any circumstances to anyone outside of Operation Reinhard. Moreover, there was “an explicit prohibition against photography in the camps of ‘Operation Reinard.\'” [155] One surviving file of Aktion Reinhard documents (partially burned) concerns the camp personnel at Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. [156] Two letters date from April 13, 1943. The first of these, addressed to SS-Obersturmführer Kuno Ther of the SS Central Office for Personnel, proposed promotions of the officers and men of Aktion Reinhard. It noted: “The Reichsführer-SS [Himmler] had approved in principle the promotion of the most deserving officers and men after his visit to the Sobibor camp.” It identified Christian Wirth as Inspector and Gottlieb Hering, Franz Reichsleitner, and Franz Stangl as “camp commanders.” (Lagerführer) The remaining non-commissioned officers on the list “had been employed in Aktion ‘Reinhard’ since the beginning and had proven themselves in the best possible manner.” [157] A second letter of the same date, from Globocnik to Gruppenführer von Herff of the SS Central Officer for Personnel of the same day and sent by courier, was slightly rephrased. It did not mention Himmler’s visit to Sobibor specifically but stated that Himmler “on the occasion of his visit in March had visited installations of Aktion ‘Reinhard\'” and approved promotions. The enclosed promotion list was for “members of the SS-Special Commando ‘Einsatz Reinhard’.” [158] Subsequent correspondence in the file concerning the recommended promotions of Aktion Reinhard personnel confirmed Himmler’s visit and inspection of Sobibor but dated it precisely to February 12, 1943. [159] On October 27, 1943, Globocnik confirmed to Herff in the SS Central Office for Personnel that included on his staff of 434 men were 92 men “from the Führer’s Chancellery for the carrying out of Aktion Reinhard.” [160] These were the men who formerly staffed the institutes of the “euthanasia” program for killing mentally- and physically handicapped Germans and were subsequently assigned to the camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka, where they could continue to use their expertise in gassing. Another surviving file of documents that mention Aktion Reinhard concern the audit of Operation Reinhard following Globocnik’s transfer from the General Government to Triest in the fall of 1943. On September 22, 1943, Himmler wrote to Oswald Pohl, head of the Economic and Administrative Main Office of the SS, and Globocnik that, in view of Globocnik’s transfer, the latter should turn over an audit of the “‘Reinhard’ account” (Konto ‘Reinhard’) to Pohl. [161] On November 4, 1943, Globocnik wrote Himmler from Triest: “As of October 19, 1943, I have terminated Aktion Reinhardt, which I directed in the General Government, and dissolved all camps.” [162] It is only at this point in the fall of 1943 that the alternative spelling of “Reinhardt” rather than “Reinhard” first appeared in the documents. [163] On January 5, 1944, Globocnik submitted his final report on the “economic part of Aktion Reinhardt.” (Wirtschaftlicher Teil der Aktion Reinhardt) This report made clear that alongside the seizure and utilization of Jewish property, Aktion Reinhardt also dealt with “the evacuation itself” (die Aussiedlung selbst) and “the utilization of labor.” (die Verwertung der Arbeitskraft) In a brief section of the report devoted to the evacuation, Globocnik reported that the “installations” (Einrichtungen) created for the operation had been “entirely cleared away.” (zur Gänze weggeräumt) Moreover, “for purposes of surveillance a small farmstead had been founded in each camp,” and the occupants had to be paid continuously to maintain the farmsteads. Concerning the utilization of labor, Globocnik noted that he had had a workforce of some 52,000 working in 18 enterprises, but on November 3, 1943, all the manpower had been withdrawn from the work camps, and the factories had been idled. [164] (In this regard it should be noted that on November 3-4, 1943, some 42,000 Jews in the work camps of Lublin, Trawniki, and Poniatowa were shot in an SS killed action code-named “Fall Harvest” or Erntefest.) Among the recipients of the Jewish property collected during Operation Reinhard were the Ministry of Economics and Reichsbank as well as the Ministry of Finance. Several conclusions can be drawn from this miniscule remnant of Operation Reinhard documents. Operation Reinhard was directed by Odilo Globocnik, the SS and Police Leader of Lublin, and the SS “special commando” of Operation Reinhard was made up of personnel who staffed the death camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka and who had earlier worked in the gassing institutes of the “euthanasia” program in Germany. The deportation of Jews to and the gassing of Jews in these camps was the central purpose of Operation Reinhard, and every effort was made to erase all physical traces of the three camps. The exploitation of Jewish labor and property were collateral aspects of Operation Reinhard, and the Finance Ministry was only one of a number of recipients of Jewish property. Staatssekretär Fritz Reinhardt of the Finance Ministry is not mentioned in any of the documents, and the spelling of Operation Reinhardt with a “t” as in his name begins only in late 1943. The notion that Operation Reinhard was a program for collecting and exploiting Jewish property and was named after the state secretary of the Finance Ministry, Fritz Reinhardt, is farfetched and finds no support in the surviving documents. Nothing in the surviving documents, however, explicitly indicates that Operation Reinhard was named for the assassinated Reinhard Heydrich. == Footnotes to: Evidence for the Implementation of the Final Solution. Christopher Browning. [1] . The Ereignismeldungen or Event Reports are found in Bundesarchiv, R 58. [2] . The Tätigkeits- und Lageberichte are found the Political Archives of the German Foreign Office, Inland II 431. They are not published in full in: Peter Klein, ed., Die Einsatzgruppen in der besetzten Sowjetunion 1941/42: Die Tätigkeits- und Lageberichte des Chefs der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD (Berlin, 1997). This book also contains many other relevant documents. [3] . The first Stahlecker report of 15.10.41 is Nürnberg Document 180-L, printed in IMT, vol. 27. The second, undated draft report is Nürnberg Document PS-2273. [4] . Karl Jäger’s report of 1.12.41, entitled “Gesamtaufstellung der im Bereich des EK. 3 bis zum 1. Dez. 1941 durchgeführten Exekutionen,” Special Archives Moscow (hereafter SAM), 500-1-25. [5] . The most complete collection can now be found in Klein, Die Einsatzgruppen. [6] . Die Einsatzgruppen in der besetzten Sowjetunion 1941/42, p. 342 (Müller to Einsatzgruppen A, B, C, D, 1.8.41). (Dem Führer soll von her aus lfd. Berichte über die Arbeit der Einsatzgruppen im Osten vorgelegt werden.) [7] . Ereignismeldung (hereafter EM) No. 163, 2.2.42. [8] . Jäger Report, 1.12.41. [9] . EM No. 133, 14.11.41. [10] . EM No. 156, 16.1.42. There are no cumulative figures reported for SK 4a and EK 6 of EG C. [11] . EM No. 190, 8.4.42. [12] . EM No. 129, 5.11.41. [13] . EM No. 150, 2.1.42. [14] . EM No. 153, 9.1.42. [15] . EM No. 157, 19.1.42. [16] . EM No. 165, 6.2.42. For February 1942, the totals were 1,649 Jews, 421 Gypsies and asocials, 739 communists, and 119 partisans and looters. EM No. 170, 18.2.42, and EM No. 178, 9.3.42. For March 1942, the totals were 1,266 Jews, 1,071 Gypsies, asocials, and mentally-ill, 764 communists, and 400 partisans. EM No. 184, 23.3.42, and EM No. 190, 8.4.42. [17] . EM No. 128, 3.11.41. [18] . EM No. 132, 12.11.41. (In der Summe der…Exekutierten sind wiederum neben einer relative geringen Anzahl von politischen Funktionären, aktiven Kommunisten, Saboteuren usw. in erster Linie Juden…enthalten). [19] . EM No. 143, 8.12.41. [20] . EM No. 156, 16.1.42. [21] . EM No. 26, 18.7.41. [22] . EM No. 43, 5.8.41. [23] . EM No. 56, 18.8.41; No. 58, 20.8.41; No. 66, 28.8.41; and No. 67, 29.8.41. [24] . EM No. 94, 25.9.41. [25] . EM No. 135, 19.11.41; No. 143, 8.12.41. [26] . EM No. 155, 11.1.42. [27] . Kube to Lohse, 31.7.42, in: YIVO Occ E 3-41. [28] . Report of HSSPF, 26.12.42, and Report to the Führer No. 51, 29.12.42, signed by H. Himmler, in: Bundesarchiv, NS 19/2566. [29] . SAM, 1372-5-23: Himmler appointment book (Terminkalendar), entry of 18.12.41. (A copy of this document is now available in the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum as: Accession 1997.A.0328). [30] . Heydrich to Jeckeln, von dem Bach-Zelewski, Prützmann, and Korsemann, 2.7.41, SAM, 500-1-25, printed in: Peter Klein, ed., Die Einsatzgruppen in der besetzten Sowjetunion 1941/1942 (Berlin, 1997), pp. 323-28. [sonstigen radikalen Elemente (Saboteure, Propagandeure, Heckenschützen, Attentäter, Hetzer usw).] [31] . Appendix 2 to Order No. 8: Guidelines for the commandos of the Security Police assigned to the POW camps, 17.7.41, in Moscow Special Archives, 500-1-25, printed in: Klein, Die Einsatzgruppen, pp. 331-40. [32] . Staatspolizeistelle Tilsit to Müller (RSHA IV A 1), 1.7.41, SAM, 500-1-758, printed in: Klein, Die Einsatzgruppen, pp. 372-75. (Der Reichsführer-SS und der Gruppenführer, die dort zufällig anwesend waren, liessen sich über die von der Staatspolizeistelle Tilsit eingeleiteten Massnahmen unterrichten und billigten diese in vollem Umfange.) [33] . EM No. 19, 11.7.41; EM No. 26, 18.7.41. [34] . EM No. 13, 5.7.41. [Führer der jüdischen Intelligenz (insbesondere Lehrer, Rechtsanwälte, Sowjetbeamte) liquidiert.] [35] . EM No. 24, 16.7.41. (Die Aktionen gegen die Juden gehen stärker weiter. …Die jüdischen Familien werden durch die Letten aus der Stadt vertrieben, während sie die Männer festsetzen. …Die festgesetzten männlichen Juden werden kurzerhand erschossen und in vorbereiteten Gräbern begraben.) [36] . EM No. 32, 24.7.41. [In Minsk ist nunmehr die gesamte jüdische Intelligenzschicht (Lehrer, Professoren, Rechtsanwälte usw mit Ansnahme der Medizinen) liquidiert worden.] [37] . EM No. 43, 5.8.41. (Das Schwergewicht der exekutiven Tätigkeit richtete sich zunächst gegen die jüdische Intelligenz.) [38] . EM No. 54, 16.8.41. == [39] . Himmler order to SS Cavalry Regiment, 1.8.41, in: Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv Freiburg, RS 3-8/36. (Sämtliche Juden müssen erschossen werden. Judenweiber in die Sümpfe treiben.) [40] . Magill report on the Pripet action, 12.8.41, in: Prague Military Archives, Kommandostab des RFSS. (Weiber und Kinder in die Sümpfe zu treiben, hatte nicht den Erfolg, den er haben sollte, denn die Sümpfe waren nicht so tief, dass ein Einsinken erfolgen konnte.) [41] . War Diary of Police Battalion 322, entries of 9, 15, and 29-31.8.41; 1.9.41; 1-3.10.41, in Military Archive Prague. [42] . Hand-written note by Stahlecker to Jäger on his “draft over the issuing of temporary guidelines for the treatment of Jews in the territory of the Reichskommissariat Ostland,” 6.8.41, in: Historical State Archives, Riga. (grundsätzliche, schriftlich nicht zu erörternde Befehle von höherer Stelle) [43] . Jäger Report, 1.12.41. [44] . For Zhitomir on September 19, 1941: EM No. 106, 7.10.41. For Kiev on September 29-30: EM No. 101, 2.10.41; EM No. 106, 7.10.41. (die Judenschaft von Shitomir endgültig und radikal zu liquidieren) [45] . EM No. 143, 8.12.41. (Am 6. und 7. November wurde die schon länger beplant [sic] gewesene Judenaktion in Rowno durchgeführt, bei der rund 15,000 Juden erschossen werden konnten.) [46] . EM No. 155, 11.1.42; EM No. 156, 16.1.42. [47] . EM No. 148, 19.12.41. [48] . EM No. 145, 12.12.41; EM No. 170, 18.2.42 [49] . EM No. 92, 23.9.41; EM No. 101, 2.10.41; EM No. 124, 25.10.41; EM No. 129, 5.11.41; EM No. 148, 19.12.41; EM No. 150, 2.1.42; EM No. 189, 3.4.42. [50] . Activity and Situation Report No. 10, for February 1942. [51] . Meeting of department and section heads, Minsk, 29.1.42, in: Central State Archives, Minsk, l370-1-53. (Eine restlose Liquidierung der Juden sei zur Zeit wegen des Frostes nicht möglich, da die Erde zu stark gefroren sei, um Gruben ausheben zu können, die dann als Massengräber für die Juden zur Verfügung stehen. Eine völlige Ausmerzung der Juden sei auch deshalb nicht möglich, weil aus den Reihen der Juden immer noch Arbeitskräfte benötigt werden. …Im Frühjahr werde jedoch wieder mit starken Exekutionen begonnen werden.) According to the Langenscheidts dictionary, “ausmerzen” has a literal meaning (in the gardening context) of to “cull, weed out” and figurative meanings of to “eradicate, wipe out,” “eliminate,” “expunge, strikeout,” and “cast off, reject.” In this context, clearly “Ausmerzung” is synonymous with “Liquidierung” or “liquidation” and hence should be translated as “eradication” or “elimination.” [52] . EM No. 178, 9.3.42: EM No. 186, 27.3.42. [53] . Memo of Stadtkommissar Brest, 4.9.42, in BA, R 6/243; Report of SS- and Standortführer Brest, 15.9.42, in BA, R 94/6 (Ich sehe, sofern in Brest die Judenfrage einmal gelöst wird, schwere wirtschaftliche Schäden infolge Mangel an Arbeitskräften eintreten.); Report of Gebietskommissar Brest, 9.10.42, in BA, R 94/7. (Obwohl vom politischen Standpunkt aus die restlose Aussiedlung der Juden aus dem Kreisgebiet erwünscht ist, muss ich vom Standpunkt des Arbeitseinsatzes aus mich unbedingt für die Belassung der notwendigsten Handwerker und Arbeitskräfte einsetzen.) [54] . Report of Gendarmerie District Leader Brest, 8.11.42, in BA, R 94/7. Report of district labor office in Brest, 27.10.41, in BA, R 94/7. [55] . Activity and Situation Report, 10th company, Police Regiment 15, 26.10.42, in: Central State Archives Moscow, 7021-148-2. [56] . Monthly report of the military armaments commando, Volhynia-Podolia, October 1942, in: Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv Freiburg, RW 30/15. (Im Oktober 1942 fanden nun in Wolhynien die grossen Judenevakuierungen statt, durch die aus allen Betrieben die Juden restlos entfernt wurden, sodass die Betriebe auf kürzere oder längere Zeit vollkommen zum Erliegen kamen, bezw. die Fertigung bis auf Bruchteile zusammenschrumpfte.) [57] . Nürnberg Document NO-626: Himmler to Berger, 28.7.42. (Die besetzten Ostgebiete werden judenfrei. Die Durchführung dieses sehr schweren Befahls [sic] hat der Führer auf meine Schultern gelegt. Die Verantwortung kann mir ohnedies niemand abnehmen.) == [58] . EM No. 126, 27.10.41; EM No. 128, 3.11.41. (denen aufgrund von Ermittlungen eine deutschfeindliche oder bolschewistische Tätigkeit nachgewiesen werden konnte. Der verbliebende Rest ist aufgrund von Vergeltungsmassnahmen erledigt worden.) [59] . EM No. 143, 8.12.41. [60] . EM No. 92, 23.9.41; EM No. 94, 25.9.41; EM No. 195, 24.4.42. [61] . EM No. 111, 12.10.41. [62] . EM No. 173, 25.2.42. [63] . EM No. 21, 13.7.41. (Die litauische Ordnungsdienst…wurden eingewiesen, sich an der Liquidierung der Juden zu beteiligen. Hierfür wurden 150 litauische Beamte abgestellt, die die Juden festnehmen und sich in Konzentrationslager schaffen, wo sie nach am gleichen Tag der Sonderbehandlung unterzogen werden. Diese Arbeit hat jetzt begonnen und so werden laufend täglich nunmehr etwa 500 Juden u.a. Saboteure liquidiert.) [64] . EM No. 92, 23.9.41. [65] . EM No. 124, 25.10.41. [66] . EM No. 148, 19.12.41. [67] . Report of Gendarmerie district leader Brest, 8.11.42, in BA, R 94/7. (Am 15. und 16.10.42 wurde in Brest-Litowsk die Judenaktion durchgeführt. Anschliessend erfolgte auch die restlose Umsiedlung der Juden im Kreisgebiet Brest-Litovsk. Im ganzen sollen bis jetzt etwa 20,000 Juden umgesiedelt worden sein. …Einsatz bei der Aktion gegen die Juden in der Stadt und im Kreisgebiet Brest-Litowsk vom 15.10.42 ab. Bis jetzt sind etwa 20,000 Juden erschossen worden.) [68] . EM No. 157, 19.1.42. (die Umsiedlung der 12-13,000 Juden, Krimtschakes und Zigeuner) [69] . Nürnberg Document PS-3943 and NO-5219: Report from the Occupied Eastern Territories, No. 4, 22.5.42. (von den allgemein zu den Juden gezählten Krimtschaken …Ihre Ausmerzung zusammen mit den eigentlichen Juden und den Zigeuner auf den Krim erfolgte im wesentlichen bis Anfang Dezember 1941.) [70] . HSSPF Riga to Stahlecker, 5.8.41, copy in: YVA, O-53/144/409-10. [71] . Stahlecker to Heydrich, 19.8.41, copy in: YVA, O-53/144/412. [72] . Historical State Archives, Riga: Stahlecker draft memo, “Betrifft: Entwurf über die Aufstellung vorläufiger Richlinien für die Behandlung der Juden im Gebiet des Reichskommissariates Ostland,” 6.8.41. (des späteren gesammelten Abtransportes in ein aussereuropäisches Judenreservat. …grundsätzliche, schriftlich nicht zu erörternde Befehle von höherer Stelle an die Sicherheitspolizei erheblich berührt) [73] . Stahlecker report, 15.10.41 (Nürnberg Document 180-L, printed in IMT, vol. 27, p. 687). (Es war von vornherein zu erwarten, dass allein durch Progrome [sic] das Judenproblem im Ostlande nicht gelöst werden würde. Andererseits hatte die sicherheitspolizeiliche Säuberungsarbeit gemäss den grundsätzlichen Befehlen eine möglichst umfassende Beseitigung der Juden zum Ziel. Es wurden daher durch Sonderkommandos, denen ausgesuchte Kräfte – in Litauen Partisanentrupps, in Lettland Trupps der lettischen Hilfspolizei – beigegeben wurden, umfangreiche Exekutionen in den Städten und auf dem flachen Lande durchgeführt.) [74] . Jäger Report, 1.12.41. [75] . Nürnberg Document NG-2586-A: Göring to Reich Interior Ministry, 24.1.39 (copy in Political Archives of the German Foreign Office, Inland II 177). [76] . Nürnberg Document PS-710: Göring to Heydrich, 31.7.41, printed in IMT, vol.. 26, pp. 266-67. [77] . Himmler to Greiser, 18.9.41, in National Archives, T-175/54/2568695. (Der Führer wünscht, dass möglichst bald das Altreich und das Protekorat vom Westen nach Osten von Juden geleert und befreit werden. …um sie im nächsten Frühjahr noch weiter nach dem Osten abzuschieben) [78] . Notes on conference chaired by Heydrich in Prague, 10.10.41, printed in: H.G. Adler, Theresienstadt 1941-1945 (Tübingen, 1960, 2nd edition), pp. 720-722 (Document 46b). [79] . Luther memoranda, 13 and 17.10.41, in: Political Archives of the German Foreign Office, Pol. Abt.. III 246. (Darüber hinaus wären diese Juden aber auch bei den nach Kriegsende zu ergreifenden Massnahmen zur grundsätzlichen Lösung der Judenfrage unmittelbaren Zugriff allzusehr entzogen) [80] . Müller Runderlass, 23.10.41 (Eichmann trial document T/1209). [81] . Rademacher report, 25.10.41, in Political Archives of the German Foreign Office, Inland II 194, printed in: Akten zur Deutschen Aussenpolitik, D, XIII, Part 2, pp. 570-72. (Sobald dann im Rahmen der Gesamtlösung der Judenfrage die technische Möglichkeit besteht, werden die Juden auf dem wasserwege in die Auffanglager im Osten abgeschoben.) [82] . Wurm to Rademacher, 23.10.41, in: Political Archives of the German Foreign Office, Inland II A/B 59/3. (Auf meine Rückreise aus Berlin traf ich einen alten Parteigenossen, der im Osten an der Regelung der Judenfrage arbeitet. In nächster Zeit wird von dem jüdischen Ungezeifer durch besondere Massnahmen manches vernichtet werden.) [83] . Nürnberg Document NO-365: draft letter, Rosenberg to lohse, initialed by Wetzel, 25.110.41. (wenn diejenigen Juden die nicht arbeitsfähig sind, mit den Brackschen Hilfsmitteln beseitigt werden) According to the Langenscheidts dictionary, “beseitigen” has the literal meaning of “remove” and two of its figurative uses are “dispose of” in the context of garbage and “do away with,” “liquidate” and “purge” in the context of killing. Here is a case where an English translation cannot capture the simumltaneous, multiple meanings of the word in the German original. A second version of Wetzel’s draft, in Wetzel’s handwriting, is NO-996 and NO-997. In this version the letter writer stated that he had no objection to proposals concerning the Jewish question contained in a report from Lohse of October 4. However, he was sending Lohse the record of Wetzel’s conversations with Brack and Eichmann; he asked Lohse “to infer the particulars concerning the state of the matter.” (das Nähere über den Stand der Angelegenheit zu entnehmen) [84] . Nürnberg Document NO-5329: Himmler file note on conversation with Rosenberg, 15.11.41; Himmler Terminkalendar, entry of 15.11.41, in Moscow Special Archives, 1372-5-23. [85] . Rosenberg speech, 18.11.41, in Political Archives of the Foreign Office, Pol. XIII, VAA Berichte. (Im Osten leben noch etwa sechs-Millionen Juden, und diese Frage nur gelöst werden in eine biologischen Ausmerzung des gesamten Judentums in Europe. Die Judenfrage ist für Deutschland erst gelöst, wenn der letzte Jude das deutsche Territoriums verlassen hat, und für Europa wenn kein Jude mehr bis zum Ural auf dem europäischen Kontinent steht. …dazu ist es nötig, sie über den Ural zu drängen oder sonst irgendwie zur Ausmerzung zu bringen.) [86] . Documents on German Foreign Policy, D, XIII, No. 515, pp. 882-84. [87] . Die Tagebücher von Joseph Goebbels, Teil II, Bd. 2, pp. 498-99 (entry of 13.12.41). (Bezüglich der Judenfrage ist der Führer entschlossen, reinen Tisch zu machen. Er hat den Juden prophezeit, dass, wenn sie noch einmal einen Weltkrieg herbeiführen würden, sie dabei ihre Vernichtung erleben würden. Das ist keine Phrase gewesen. Der Weltkrieg ist da, die Vernichtung der Judentums muss die notwendige Folge sein.) == [88] . Frank speech at Regierungssitzung of 16.12.41, printed in Das Diensttagebuch des deutschen Generalgouverneurs in Polen 1929-1945 (Stuttgart, 1975), pp. 457-8. (Mit den Juden–dass will ich Ihnen auch ganz offen sagen–must so oder so Schluss gemacht werden. Der Führer sprach einmal das Wort aus: wenn es der vereinigten Judenschaft wieder gelingen wird, einen Weltkrieg zu entfesseln, dann werden die Blutopfer nicht nur von den in den Krieg gehetzten Völkern gebracht werden, sondern dann wird der Jude in Europa sein Ende gefunden haben. …Ich möchte Sie bitten: einigen Sie sich mit mir zunächst, bevor ich jetzt weiterspreche, auf die Formel: Mitleid wollen wir grundsätzlich nur mit dem deutschen Volke haben, sonst mit niemandem auf der Welt. Die anderen haben auch kein Mitleid mit uns gehabt. Ich muss auch als alter Nationalsozialist sagen: wenn die Judensippschaft in Europa den Krieg überleben würde, wir aber unser bestes Blut für die Erhaltung Europas geopfert hätten, dann würde dieser Krieg doch nur einen Teilerfolg darstellen. Ich werde daher den Juden gegenüber grundsätzlich nur von der Erwartung ausgehen, dass sie verschwinden. Sie müssen weg. Ich habe Verhandlungen zu dem Zwecke angeknüpft, sie nach dem Osten”
  82. Browning Testimony con’t:

    “…Der allfällig verbleibende Restbestand wird, da es sich bei diesen zweifellos um den widerstandsfähigsten Teil handelt, entsprechend behandelt müssen, da dieser, eine natürliche Auslese darstellend, bei Freislassung als Keimzelle eines neuen jüdische Aufbaues anzusprechen ist. (In grossen Arbeitskolonnen, unter Trennung der Geschlechter, werden die arbeitsfähigen Juden strassenbauend in diese Gebiete geführt, wobei zweifellos ein Grossteil durch natürliche Verminderung ausfallen wird. …Abschliessend wurden die verschiedenen Arten dere Lösungsmöglichkeiten besprochen….) ) [90] . Protocol of Ostministerium conference, 29.1.42, in: Political Archives of the German Foreign Office, Inland II 179. [91] . Louis Lochner, ed., The Goebbels Diaries (New York, 1948), pp. 147-48. [92] . BA, R 58/871. [93] . Rauff to Criminal Technical Institute, copy to Pradel, 27.3.42, in BA, R 58/871. (Die von uns gefertigten Sonderwagen sind z. Zt. alle gemäss Befehl des Chefs der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD im Einsatz. …Da ich annehme, dass das K.L. Mauthausen nicht unbestimmte Zeit bis zur Verfügungstellung warten kann, bitte ich die Beschaffung von Stahlflaschen mit Kohlenoxyd bzw. andere Hilfsmitteln zur Durchführung von dort aus in die Wege zu leiten.) [94] . Nürnberg Documents NOKW-221 and NOKW-1077: 10-day report, 10.3.42, and daily report, 19.3.42. [95] . Turner to Wolff, 11.4.42, from Berlin Document Center file of Turner. (Schon vor Monaten habe ich alles an Juden im hiesigen Lande greifbare erschiessen und sämtliche Judenfrauen und Kinder in einem Lager konzentrieren lassen und zugleich mit Hilfe des SD einen ‘Entlausungswagen’ angeschaft, der nun in etwa 14 Tage bis 4 Wochen auch die Räumung des Lagers endgültig durchgeführt haben wird….) [96] . Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv Freiburg, R 40/27-30: 10-day reports (10.3, 20.3, 30.3, 20.4, 30.4, 10.5, 22.5) of the plenipotentiary commanding general in Serbia, March-June 1942. [97] . Rademacher memorandum, 29.5.42, in Political Archives, Pol. IV (348). (Die Judenfrage ist in Serbien nicht mehr akut.) [98] . Nürnberg Document NOKW-926, report on the trip of the Military Commander Southeast to Serbia, 7-14.6.42. [99] . Nürnberg Document 501-PS, Schäfer to Major Pradel, RSHA II D 3, 9.6.42. (haben den Sonderauftrag durchgefuehrt) [100] . Nürnberg Document NO-246, Greiser to Himmler, 1.5.42. (Die von Ihnen im Einvernehmen mit dem Chef des Reichssicherheitshauptamtes SS-Obergruppenführer Heydrich genehmigte Aktion der Sonderbehandlung von rund 100,000 Juden in meinem Gaugebiet wird in den nächsten 2-3 Monaten abgeschlossen werden können.) In this letter, Greiser went on to ask if the Sonderkommando employed for the Jewish action could then be used to free the Warthegau from the threat posed by Poles with “open tuberculosis.” Himmler subsequently gave Greiser permissions to subject tubercular Poles deemed incurable to “special treatment.” NO-249, Greiser to Himmler, 21.11.42. [101] . II D 3 Vermerk, 5.6.42, signed by Just, in BA, R 58/871. (Seit Dezember 19421 wurden beispielsweise mit 3 eingesetzten Wagen 97,000 verarbeitet, ohne dass Mängel an den Fahrzeugen auftraten. Die bekannte Explosion in Kulmhof ist als Einzelfall zu bewerten. Ihre Ursache ist auf einen Bedienungsfehler zurückzuführen.) The report then proposed a series of improvements, including: 1) The installation of two narrow slits with lightweight flaps that would facilitate the rapid inflow of CO while avoiding overpressure; 2) Shortening the large Saurer model. They could not negotiate the Russian terrain fully loaded, and thus too much empty space existed to be filled quickly with carbon monoxide, and thus the operating time was greatly lengthened. A shorter, fully loaded truck could operate much more quickly. A shortening of the rear compartment would not disadvantageously affect the weight balance, overburdening the front axle, because, “Actually a compensation in the weight distribution takes place automatically through the fact that the cargo in the struggle toward the back door during the operation is always is preponderately located there.” (Tatsächlich findet aber ungewollt ein Ausgleich in der Gewichtsverteilung dadurch statt, dass das Ladegut beim Betrieb in dem Streben nach der hinteren Tür immer vorwiegend dort liegt.); 3) To facilitate cleaning, an eight- to twelve-inch hole should be made in the floor and provided with a cover opened from outside. The floor should be slightly inclined, and the cover equipped with a small sieve. Thus all “fluids” would flow to the middle, the “thin fluids” would exit even during the operation, and “thicker filth” could be hosed out afterward; 4) a strongly protected light that would operate during the first minutes, so the “cargo” would not make a bolting of the door difficult by pressing against the back door in panic when plunged into darkness. [102] . Yad Vashem Archives, O-6/79, Report of Statistical Office of Lodz on the Jewish population in 1940. Gestapo situation report, Lodz, 3.10.41, printed in: Faschismus-Getto-Massenmord, p. 266; The Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto, pp. xxxix and 266. [103] . Nürnberg Document 501-PS, Becker to Rauff, 16.5.42, printed in: IMT, vol. 26, pp. 103-5. (Die Vergasung wird durchweg nicht richtig vorgenommen. Um die Aktion möglichst schnell zu beenden, geben die Fahrer durchweg Vollgas. Durch diese Massnahme erleiden die zu Exekutierenden den Erstickungstod und nicht wie vorgesehen, den Einschläferungstod.) [104] . 501-PS, BdS Ostland to RSHA, II D 3 a, 15.6.42, printed in: IMT, vol. 26, pp. 106-7. (trifft woechentlich ein Judentransport ein, der einer Sonderbehandlung zu unterziehen ist. Die 3 dort vorhandenen S-Wagen reichen fuer diesen Zweck nicht aus!) [105] . Weekly report of Haubtabteilung Propaganda, 21.3.42, in YVA, O-53/134/1813. (Aussiedlung von Juden. Seit Montag, den 16.3.42, wird das Ghetto in Lublin von Juden geräumt. Täglich werden rund 2000 Juden erfasst und nach Richtung Osten geschafft. Es bleibt lediglich ein kleiner jüdischer Wohnbezirk erhalten für die Juden, die noch für deutsche Dienststellen arbeiten. Er wird damit gerechnet, dass bis zum 1.4. die Aktion beendet ist. Mit einer Aussiedlung von 35-38,000 Juden wird gerechnet.) [106] . Türk Vermerk, 17.3.42, in YVA, O-53/79/470-1, printed in: DiM, II, 32-33. (1) Es wäre zweckmässig, die in den Distrikt Lublin kommenden Judentransporte schon auf der Abgangsstation in arbeitsfähige und nichtarbeitsfähige Juden zu teilen. Wenn diese Auseinderhaltung auf der Abgangsstation nicht möglich ist, müsste man evtl. dazu übergehen, den Transport in Lublin nach den obengenannten Gesichtspunkten zu trennen. 2) Hstuf. Höfle ist daran, ein grosses Lager zu bauen, in welchem die einsatzfähigen Juden nach ihren Berufen karteimässig erfasst und von dort angefordert werden können. 3) Piaski wird von polnischen Juden freigemacht und wird Sammelpunkt der aus dem Reich kommenden Juden. …Abschliessend erklärte er, er könne 4-5 Transporte zu 1000 Juden mit der Zielstation Belzec aufnehmen. Diese Juden kämen über die Grenze und würden nie mehr ins Generalgouvernement zurückkommen.) Piaski is a small town southeast of Lublin on the rail line between Lublin and Belzlec. [107] . Türk Vermerk, 20.3.42, in YVA, O-53/79/476. (Krieshauptmann Weienmeyer hatte über den Endablauf der Aussiedlung noch nichts erfahren können; lediglich bekannt ist das Vorhandsein eines Sammellagers in einiger Entfernung von Bahnhof Belzec an der Distriktgrenze, das aber völlig abgeschlossen ist und die Ankunft eines SS-Kommandos von ca. 60 Mann.) [108] . Amt für In. Verw.., Kreishauptmann Pulawy, 14.5.42, to Department of Population and Welfare, Lublin, copy in YVA, O-53/83/115-16. (In der Zeit vom 6. Mai bis 12. Mai einschliesslich sind auf Weisung des SS und Polizeiführers 16,822 Juden aus dem Kreis Pulawy über den Bug ausgewiesen worden.) Documents containing numerous references to the deportation of Jews from towns in the Lublin district in the spring of 1942 can be found in this file as well as O-53/79 and O-53/85. [109] . Louis Lochner, ed., The Goebbels Diaries, pp. 175-76. [110] . Report of OFK 365, 19.3.42, in National Archives, T-501/215/97. (Innerhalb der jüdischen Bevölkerung Lembergs hat eine merkliche Beunruhigung Platz gegriffen mit Rücksicht auf eine begonnene Aussiedlungsaktion, durch die etwa 30,000 ältere und sonstige, nicht im Arbeitsprozess stehende Juden Lembergs erfasst und, wie angegeben, in die Gegend von Lublin verbracht werden sollen. Inwieweit diese Evakuierung einer Dezimierung gleichzusetzten sein wird, bleibt abzuwarten.) ==
    [111] . Report of OFK 365, 18.4.42, in National Archives, T-501/216/203. (Die jüdische Bevölkerung zeigt tiefste Niedergeschlagenheit, was auch durchaus erklärlich ist, da einmal in verschiedenen Orten des Distrikts die bekannten Aktionen gegen die Juden wieder einsetzten und zum anderen in Lemberg die vorübergehend unterbrochene Aussiedlung von Juden ihren Fortgang nimmt; es dürfte sich inzwischen auch bei den Juden herumgesprochen haben, dass die Evakuierten das Ansiedlungsgebiet, das ihnen als Reiseziel angegeben wird, niemals erreichen.) [112] . Report of OFK 365, 17.10.42, in National Archives, T-501/216/1129. (Die Umsiedlungsaktionen gehen unvermindert weiter. Das Judentum ist über sein Schicksal unterrichtet. Bezeichnend ist der Ausspruch eines Mitgliedes des Lemberger Judenrates: Wir tragen alle unseren Totenschein in der Tasche–es ist nur der Sterbetag noch nicht ausgefüllt.) [113] . Westermann report to KdO Lemberg, 14.9.42. Copy in: Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen, Ludwigsburg, USSR Ord. No. 116/508-10. (Die immer grosser werdende Panik unter den Juden, vorgerufen durch starke Hitze, Überfüllung der Waggons und den Leichengestank–es befanden sich beim Ausladen der Waggons etwa 2000 Juden tot im Zuge–machten den Transport fast undurchführbar.) A more legible, retyped copy of this document contains the figure 200 rather than 2,000. [114] . Katzmann to Krüger, 30.6.43, printed in: IMT, vol. 37, pp. 398 and 401. [115] . Nürnberg Document NO-2207, Ganzenmüller to Wolff, 28.7.42. (Seit dem 22.7 fährt täglich ein Zug mit 5000 Juden von Warschau über Malkinia nach Treblinka, ausserdem zweimal wöchentlich ein Zug mit 5000 Juden von Przemysl nach Belzek.) [116] . August/September report of the Warsaw district governor to Bühler, in YVA, O-53/113/348-61. [117] . Facsimile copies of these train schedules are printed in the appendices of: Raul Hilberg, Sonderzüge nach Auschwitz (Mainz, 1981), pp. 183-86, 198-202, 208-212, 216-17, 222-23, 228. [118] . War Diary of the Oberquartiermeister, Mbfh Polen, 1.5..41-31.12.43, in National Archives, T-501/219/461. (OK Ostrow meldet, dass die Juden in Treblinka nicht ausreichend beerdigt seien und infolgedessen ein unerträglicher Kadavergeruch die Luft verpestet.) [119] . Fischmann report, 20.6.42, copy in YVA, O-51/163/42-43. [120] . NO-2207, Ganzenmüller to Wolff, 28.7.42. [121] . Protocol of conference of September 26 and 28, 1942, concerning the evacuation of Jews, copy in: Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen Ludwigsburg, 8 AR-Z 151/59, p. 31-32. (Nach der Beendigung der Wiederinstandsetzung der Linie Lublin-Chelm, wahrscheinlich ab 1. November 1942, werden auch die anderen dringenden Transporte durchgeführt werden können, nämlich: 1 Zug pro Tag vom Distrikt Radom nach Sobibor; 1 Zug pro Tag von Distrikt Lublin Nord nach Belzec und 1 Zug pro Tag vom Distrikt Lublin Mitte nach Sobibor….) [122] . Globocnik to Herff, with promotion list, printed in Faschismus-Getto-Massenmord, pp. 301-2. (der beste Lagerleiter, der den grössten Anteil an der ganzen Aktion hatte) [123] . “Eichmann tells his own damning story,” Life Magazine 49/22 (28.11.60). Copies of the transcripts of Eichmann’s taped conversations with Sassen, corrected in Eichmann’s hand, can be found in the Israeli State Archives. [124] . Copies of these interrogations can be found in six volumes in: Bundesarchiv Koblenz, All. Proz. 6/1-6. Excerpts have been published in: Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police, ed. by Jochen von Lang. [125] . Bundesarchiv Koblenz, All. Proz. 6/119. [126] . Bundesarchiv Koblenz, All. Proz. 6/169. [127] . The Trial of Adolf Eichmann: Record of Proceedings in the District Court of Jerusalem (Jerusalem, 1993), and Bundesarchiv Koblenz, All. Proz. 6/54-60. [128] . Published by Leoni am Starnberger See. [129] . Nürnberg Document PS-1553/RF-350. An edition of the Gerstein report was published by Hans Rothfels in the Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (1953), pp. 177-194. Rothfels omitted some of Gerstein’s allegations of Pfannenstiel’s conduct as “purely personal notes.” See also: Saul Friedländer, Kurt Gerstein: The Ambiguity of Good (New York, 1969), in which many excerpts from the Gerstein report and other correspondence are published. [130] . Wirth’s adjutant was named Josef Oberhauser, not Obermeyer. [131] . A man named Lorenz Hackenholt, not Heckenholt, was in charge of the gas chambers at Belzec. [132] . Aide memoire, written for the Swedish Foreign Office on August 7, 1945, published in: Steven Koblik, The Stones Cry Out: Sweden’s Response to the Persecution of the Jews, 1933-1945 (New York, 1988), pp. 198-99, and several interviews with Koblik, pp. 58-59. Otter also recounted the meeting in an interview, Rheinischer Merkur, July 24, 1964. [133] . Zentrale Stelle, 8 AR-Z 252/59, vol. I, pp. 41-44 (Pfannenstiel testimony, 6.6.50), and pp. 135-41 (testimony of 9.11.59). Excerpts from a deposition of 9.2.51 are also printed in Friedländer, Kurt Gerstein, pp. 120-21. Excerpts of the testimony of 9.11.59 are printed in: Nationalsozialistische Massentötungen durch Giftgas, ed. by Eugen Kogen, Hermann Langbein, and Adalbert Rückerl (Frankfurt/M., 1983), pp. 173-74. [134] . The 29 indicted personnel of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka were: Josef Hirtreiter, Hubert Gomerski, Johann Kleier, Erich Bauer, Kurt Franz, Heinrich Matthes, August Miete, Willi Mentz, Gustav Münzenberger, Otto Stadie, Franz Suchomel, Erwin Lambert, Franz Rum, Otto Horn, Joseph Oberhauser, Werner Dubois, Robert Jührs, Heinrich Unverhau, Ernst Zierke, Karl Alfred Schluch, Heinrich Gley, Erich Fuchs, Kurt Bolender, Karl Frenzel, Franz Wolf, Alfred Ittner, Hans-Heinz Schütt, Erich L., and Franz Stangl. Brief sketches of most of the defendants, as well as a list of the trials, can be found in: Dick de Mildt, In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide in the Reflection of their post-War Prosecution in West Germany: The ‘Euthanasia’ and ‘Aktion Reinhard’ Trial Cases (The Hague, 1996). An earlier study of the Aktion Reinhard trials is: Adalbert Rückerl, NS-Vernichtungslager im Spiegel deutscher Strafprozesse: Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno (Munich, 1977). [135] . London, 1974. [136] . Additional testimony of the Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka camp personnel has been printed in: Nationalsozialistische Massentötungen durch Giftgas, pp. 146-193. [137] . ZStL, 208 AR-Z 252/59, vol. 8, pp. 1512-13 (testimony of Alfred Schluch). Portions of Schluch’s testimony are also printed in: Nationalsozialistische Massentötungen durch Giftgas, pp. 167-68. (Die gehfähigen Juden hatten sich nach der Entladung an den Sammelplatz zu begeben. Bei der Entladung wurde den Juden gesagt, dass sie zur Umsiedlung kämen und zuvor noch gebadet und desinfiziert werden sollten. Die Ansprache wurde von Wirth, aber auch von seinem Dolmetscher, einem jüdischen Kapo, gehalten. Daran anschliessend wurden die Juden zu den Entkleidungsbaracken geführt. In der einen Baracke mussten sich die männlichen und in der anderen die weiblichen Juden und Kinder entkleiden. Nach der Entkleidung wurden die Juden getrennt nach Männern und Frauen mit Kindern durch den Schlauch geführt. …Mein Standort am Schluch war in unmittelbarer Nähe der Entkleidungsbaracke. Wirth hatte mich deswegen dort eingewiesen, weil ich seiner Meinung nach beruhigend auf die Juden einwirken konnte. Nach Verlassen der Entkleidungsbaracke musste ich den Juden den weg zur Gaskammer weisen. Ich glaube, dass ich den Juden den Weg dorthin erleichterte, denn sie mussten aus meinen Worten oder meinen Gesten zur Überzeugung kommen, dass sie tatsächlich gebadet werden sollten. Nachdem die Juden die Gaskammern betreten hatten, wurden die Türen von Hackenholt selbst oder von den ihm zugeteilten Ukrainern fest verschlossen. Sodann setzte Hackenholt den Motor in Betrieb, mit dem die Vergasung ausgeführt wurde. Nach etwa 5 bis 7 Minuten–und diesen Zeitraum schätze ich nur–wurde durch ein Guckloch in die Gaskammer hineingeschaut, um festzustellen, ob bei allen der Tod eingetreten ist. Erst dann wurden die Aussentore geöffnet und die Gaskammern gelüftet. …Nachdem die Gaskammern gelüftet worden waren, kam ein jüdisches Arbeitskommando unter Leitung eines Kapos und holte die Leichen aus den Kammern heraus. Auch an dieser Stelle habe ich gelegentlich Aufsichtsdienst gehabt. Die Vorgänge kann ich also genau schildern, weil ich alles selbst gesehen und miterlebt habe. Die Juden waren in die Gaskammern sehr eng eingepfercht worden. Aus diesem Grunde lagen die Leichen nicht am Boden, sondern sie hingen kreuz und quer durcheinander, die eine zurück-, die andere vorgebeugt, eine zur Seite liegend, eine andere knieend, je nach dem, wie der Platz war. Die Leichen waren wenigstens teilweise mit Kot und Urin, andere zum Teil mit Speichel besudelt. Bei den Leichen konnte ich z.T. sehen, dass die Lippen und auch Nasenspitzen blaulich verfärbt waren. Bei einigen waren die Augen geschlossen, bei anderen waren die Augen verdreht. Die Leichen wurden aus den Kammern herausgezogen und von einem Zahnarzt sogleich untersucht. Der Zahnarzt entfernte Fingerringe und zog etwa vorhandene Goldzähne heraus. Die auf diese Weise anfallenden Wertgegenststände wurden von ihm in einen bereitstehenden Karton geworfen. Nach dieser Prozedur wurden die Leichen in die vorhandenen grossen Gräber geworfen.) ”

    That’s a lot of evidence saying there is plenty of documentation about the Final Solution from the German government. Something you said didn’t exist, bill. Why . . . that’s so much evidence, I think the non-technical term is “a shitload”.

    Now where is your evidence the Holocaust never happened?

    P.S. I have a very real doctorate, but I’m not the kind of doctor that can help you, bill. I’m a Juris Doctorate. However, I’m certain you can find the mental health care you need in your area.

    P.P.S. What OS said.

  83. Nothing but propaganda, probably produced by Shin-bet or Mossad.

    Most historians toe the official position – even as most of them will admit that there’s no German Government document or written order by Hitler to murder six or twelve million people.

    The former Nazi, Werner von Braun had to have known that it was not technically possible to survive the radiation on the way to the Moon, nor the
    instantaneous temperature change on the Moon from boiling heat to extreme (-180 or -280F) on the Moon. Nor was possible then, or now, to withstand the constant bombardment of micro meteorites (tiny rocks pummeling suits and equipment – including their ride home).

    These are some of the many reasons why no manned flight to the Moon has been attempted in 40 years, and the only planned one was cancelled.

    The technology to do such a thing wasn’t available back then, nor now.

  84. ” I’m a Juris Doctorate” Oh. so you’re a liar. Both of my brothers have JD degrees and one has an LLM (taxation, NYU, MBA, also NYU, and CPA).

    I’ve never heard of a law school program that requires you to write a thesis, but maybe they do at the LaSalle school.

    You should be ashamed of yourself for not being straightforward.

  85. Gene, Darren and Lee.
    I think we can all rest our case. Box. Logic. Proof.

    There is no dissuading the delusional.

    I think I need a drink. That kind of crap is not only delusional, it is hateful and antisemitic. I am just sorry that Mike S. and other Jews who read this site have to look at that. If this were Daily Kos or even RedState, that user would have been banned a long time ago.

  86. OS,

    You got that right….. This is true even for the highly educated as well as the ones life puts challenges in front of…..

  87. bill,
    A YouTube video is not evidence of anything. What Gene presented above was sworn testimony in a court of law. I have a suggestion. You are making no progress here, but are digging yourself a bigger and deeper hole. I am sure there are several conspiracy theory sites where you can find a circle of true believers. In the meantime, adults are trying to have a serious conversation and your input is neither appreciated or believed.

    Alien abductions, cold fusion and holocaust denials are that way ——->

  88. OrneryScribbler:

    It’s usually only right-wingers that oppose free speech, so who appointed you to be this site’s censor?

  89. @ everyone but Bill McW: I have stopped responding to any kind of blather from Holocaust deniers, since I figured out that it was something they do to aid in their masturbating. I figure if a guy can’t get it without imagining Hoaxification of History, he’s a sorry piece and I won’t participate in his little thing with him.

    I imagine one of Hitler’s last thoughts was that pretty young frauleins were going to dream of him with his dumb little nosebrush and his prominent rigid extended arm — and so, evidently, do a whole bunch of guys who are wannabe’s — 🙄

  90. No one said you couldn’t say the drivel you say, bill.

    It’s just unappreciated, ignorant, bigoted, stupid, childish, irrational, not based in any acceptable form of evidence, foolish, ridiculous and you’re perfectly free to spout it all you like.

    Just like we’re free to subject it to critical scrutiny, counterargument (including valid evidence) and – as your statements are prime facie ridiculous – ridicule as we see fit. Ridiculous ideas without any substantive proof get ridiculed . . . who’d have thunk it!

    That freedom of speech, she is a two-edged sword.

    You made a contention.
    It was challenged both on logic and evidentiary grounds.

    Many submitted history that is common knowledge. Mespo submitted the confession of Rudolph Hoess. I submitted proof in the form of expert testimony with footnotes referencing original materials that is accepted in a court of law as valid evidence that your contention the Holocaust never happened and there is no German documentation to prove that it did is complete and utter bullshit.

    You? Submitted “counter-evidence” (and it is a stretch to call it any sort of evidence) in the form of YouTube videos with no providence, no probative value, posted to YouTube by anonymous whack-a-loons, bad logic and a general dismissal of anything that didn’t play to your confirmation bias as propaganda.

    Do you even know what anosognosia is?

    Again, for those playing the home game, that score is :

    Team Atomic: 1
    Team Pointed Stick: -1 (Penalty Card)

  91. Bless your little heart, Malisha. I bet you are a very sweet, reasonable woman who loves nothing more than discussing ideas. Or maybe people. Or just events. When did you graduate from high school?

  92. You submitted hearsay propaganda that was probably written by an intelligence service operative, Dr. Gene, of The LaSalle liar skool.

    Did you drink the 9/11 Kool Aid on the day Bush told you what to believe?

  93. No. I submitted expert testimony accepted in court and used as evidence in a ruling against another ignorant Holocaust denier like yourself, bill. None of it was hearsay. Were it, it would have been inadmissible. Courts are triers of fact, bill. If the evidence passes the critical scrutiny of the evidentiary process, it is considered a fact, ergo, I presented facts.

    Deal with it. Don’t deal with it. I’m indifferent to your state of mind. The proof wasn’t offered for you. It is for the audience. I don’t want any innocent bystanders to get the wrong I idea that you might have a clue when clearly you don’t.

  94. What court was your evidence accepted in, where, and what ruling was handed down as the result?

    No one doubts that there are far more zealots such as yourself, than independent thinkers. Trying to get someone expelled because of their views is bad enough, but in Germany, the gov’t is so embarrassed about all of the re[arations they paid out,, it’s now a crime to even question the claim
    that Hitler ordered the systematic murder of millions of Jews.

    You are a liberal, right? Moderate? Soothsayer?

  95. Ok, I spoke too soon. Malisha just passed Lee in the final turn to win the Internets.

    That was worth a double coffee spew on the keyboard.

  96. “What court was your evidence accepted in, where, and what ruling was handed down as the result?”

    I already gave you that information.

  97. “What court was your evidence accepted in, where, and what ruling was handed down as the result?”


    Jeebus, bill,
    Did you even bother to read the long court transcripts and rulings Gene posted? Or were there too many big words? All your questions are answered, and if that was not enough, he provided a number of cites and other legal materials that are freely available on legal sites.

  98. bill, when will you get it through your head that a video posted on the internet by an unknown person, with an unknown provenance, is NOT EVIDENCE.

    This is getting tiresome.

  99. Otteray, can you prove a negative with evidence? Where’s the proof that YOU didn’t land on the Moon?

    The video is disturbing to you because an expert explains why it was impossible for six million people to have been deliberately murdered in German labor camps, and is upsetting to your world view. You bought into the hoax a long time ago, and you refuse to consider that you might be wrong. Your emotions won’t allow you to change your mind, even in the light of new and credible information. That’s a shame. Have you always been closed minded? Were you once a right-wing zealot?

  100. OS,

    Thanks for the empathy buy Bill doesn’t really disturb me. He merely confirms my belief that Jew haters are still out there. There is no ressonig with a man like him and it bores me to try. Gene, Darren, you and others have demolished his feeble points with actual truth, but he is incapable of breaking through the wall of his denial. A pathetic man with little evidence merely pulls focus to his own mental issue. Shooting this target is far too easy.

  101. Mike,

    I have no need to shoot further as that large rock that I dropped on him from orbit did the job nicely.:mrgreen: So long as his assertions are rebutted by evidence the reasoned minds will accept, my duty is done.

  102. Mike and Gene,
    I agree. Our work here is done. Deniers and CT types live in a strange dream world of their own. We can leave them muttering in their beer. Or mushrooms.

  103. Bill.

    So youtube videos are the evidence you proffer? Well you might be right. This one describes your grandstanding quite accurately.

  104. It’s clear that you are incapable of thinking logically, otherwise you wouldn’t make such elementary blunders like falsely claiming that I’ve ever said that a youtube video is evidence.

    It is also clear that you don’t have the faintest idea how silly it makes you look to expound on a topic whose very foundation is called into question by an expert who is quoted in the video I provided a link to. Honestly, I’m not all that surprised that so many sheeple here can’t think, but the guy who claims to be a doctor/lawyer- or liar, should have at least some level of reasoning skills, either from his night law school experience or from handling legal matters — assuming he ha ever done so.

    Mr. SPIN – you may consider your esteem (sic) a collector’s item, but I don’t. Long winded bloviations do not a thinker make.

  105. Ottory Scribe,

    Look who’s calling someone (whose views he doesn’t even know) a CT:
    a man/woman that believes a sick, dying man (dead as of mid 12/2001) living in a cave + 19 angry young, coke-snorting, Mooslims is who is responsible for the 9/11 attacks! YOU’RE A CT, Mr. Scribe. do you know what the term conspiracy means? look it up. You’re hilariously ignorant of what you are talking about.

  106. Otter-

    You believe in crazy, zany, impossible conspiracy theories. Would you rather be called Truth Denier, or CT? in honor of your 9/11 Conspiracy Theory belief, would you prefer to known as “Bush Man”?

  107. @Bill: 1965. Picked up the awards for French, Latin, drama, charitable extracurriculars, chemistry and Bausch & Lomb General Science Achievement.

    @ Everyone else: Check out this phrase: “an expert explains why [sic] it was impossible for six million people to have been deliberately murdered in German labor camps,”

    If you evaluate that statement as a lawyer might, when taking a deposition, you have at least these follow-up questions:

    “Could One million or more have been accidentally killed in those same German labor camps while the six million were not deliberately murdered?”

    “Could several million have been deliberately or accidentally killed in Polish, Hungarian, or other neighboring labor camps?”

    “Do you know the exact maximum number of people who could have been deliberately murdered in German or neighboring extermination camps as opposed to labor camps?”

    “How many people could have been shot and thrown into mass graves in areas that were not within walking distance to German labor camps?”

    “What exact maximum number of people COULD have been deliberately murdered in German labor camps?”

    “Did you ever see Santa Claus molesting a German child?”

    “Excuse me, is this the person with whom I am speaking?”

  108. Oh I just actually clicked on the link and listened for a few minutes to the “expert” (guy who speaks while gazing studiously to the left of the interviewer) who has provided this quotation about the gas chambers. At one point he actually mixed up “gas chambers” with “crematoria”! There’s your expert. HA HA HA HA HA HA HA!

    OS, if you want that in words of one syllable, here we go:


  109. Maslisha –

    The man who designed three gas chambers said that the so-called gas chambers where six or twelve million people were killed were not capable of doing that, and he explains why in the video excerpt.

    The Bishop said he believes it’s possible that as many as 300,000 people died in the camps, but NOT from being murdered in gas chambers.

    You need to learn some better listening skills, assuing you weren’t intentionally trying to distort what you heard, in order to create a deceptive, false narrative of the video content.

    Deception is the essence of a lie, Malisha.

  110. With respect to the idea that “a person cannot be both a victim and a perpetrator,” that is, excuse me, the wrongest idea in the world. In fact, I believe firmly that victimizing a person will do one of several (not a huge number of alternatives here) fairly predictable things, based on that person’s underlying character, background and natural resilience (and intelligence) (and, according to the studies, unfortunately, gender):

    1. Make that person become more likely to be victimized again;
    2. Make that person “identify with the aggressor” and become a perpetrator;
    3. Make that person extremely angry and unable to divest himself/herself of anger;
    4. Make that person fail to expand his or her personality to its natural limits; and/or
    5. Make that person adopt a completely inappropriate method for assessing his or her environment, leading to the inability to properly measure danger, and the inability to access a reasonable position to respond to possible danger.

    Which would make us expect that if you perpetrate a huge, organized, sadistic, inexorable murderous crime against a group of people for years and years, you will end up with large numbers of:

    * and People who cannot appropriately assess and respond to danger.

    Saying the Holocaust did not happen won’t change that.

    It reminds me of a scenario I have actually seen several times. It’s about parents who have abused a child horribly and the child has grown up in a very peculiar environment as a result. At some point in the child’s adult life he does something really aggressive and possibly horrible to someone else and when the probation department is writing up a presentence report, it identifies the fact that he was abused as a child. The parents, who have paid for his lawyer to defend him and who worked with the lawyer up until the time of the presentence report, then complain to the lawyer that the presentence report is not accurate: WE NEVER DID ANYTHING WRONG TO THAT BOY; HE JUST GREW UP BAD!

    The lawyer has to do his best for his client even though the parents pay his bill. Should he challenge his own client’s report to the presentence report author? No, he should not. He should admit that his client CAN BE both a victim and a victimizer and in fact, the two are inextricably intertwined.

    Perhaps the world doesn’t like to admit that what happened in the 20th Century did have a lot to do with the fact that many (but obviously not all) of the Jews of Israel are “over the top” with aggressive defensiveness. Should the answer be to deny what happened in the 20th Century or to DEAL WIDDIT.

    I would say: WORLD: DEAL WIDDIT. The time to change history would have been in 1939, NOT in 2013.

  111. Plenty of hottish air, but totally unresponsive to the points I presented to you to help you out since you distorted them earlier Makes me think you did that intentionally – because you can’t refute them. You are not making yourself look like much of a discussion participant, Mal.

    Maybe you’re starting to question some of the propaganda we’ve all been fed by Israel and their zealot followers around the world.

  112. “The Bishop said he believes it’s possible that as many as 300,000 people died in the camps, but NOT from being murdered in gas chambers.”

    So Bill, let us reason together. “Only” 300,000 Jews “died”, thus were not “murdered” in the “Slave Labor Camps”. Since as you imply, they weren’t killed intentionally, but died from disease and other natural causes that makes it all right? Is this really your position? If it is then there is something wrong with you since you are justifying the NAZI’s use of slave labor camps which disproportionately had a Jewish population. After all what is “only” 300,00 deaths?

    The video you showed quoting the “expert” was nonsensical when it he discussed that the cyanide (zyclon b) gases were so dangerous that if you “gassed 300 people” you couldn’t go in afterwards or it would be trapped by their clothes. This is stupid because why would you send people into “de-lousing” chambers with their clothes on? Secondly, the people who removed the bodies from the gas chambers were other Jews, so the Germans certainly didn’t care if some of them died in the process. The reality:

    “According to Rudolf Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz, Bunker 1 held 800 people, and Bunker 2 held 1,200 victims. Once the gas chambers were full, their doors were closed tightly, and solid pellets of Zyklon B were dropped into the chambers through pipes in the side walls, thus releasing the cyanide gas when the Zyklon B got wet. Those victims inside the gas chambers usually died within 20 minutes. The speed of the deaths depended on how close the victim was standing to a poison gas vent, according to Höss, who estimated that about one third of the victims died practically immediately. Johann Kremer, an SS doctor who oversaw the gassings, testified: the “Shouting and screaming of the victims could be heard through the opening and it was clear that they fought for their lives.” If the gas chamber had been crowded, which they typically were, the corpses were found half-squatting, their skin discolored pink with red and green spots, with some found foaming at their mouths, or bleeding from their ears.

    Victor Capesius was one of the Nazi war criminals who worked with Zyklon B in Auschwitz and Birkenau. He was sentenced to prison in West Germany for his crimes.”

    Now of course according to your logic this was forced, false testimony and we should believe the word of your “expert” in the design of gas chambers. Let’s get real here Bill and actually come out in the open. You hate Jews. With that hatred comes the need to denying anything that has to do with Jews, be it the Shoah, Israel or any other area where a Jew may be involved. As a proud Jew I don’t dispute your right to hate us, nor would I want you to lose your hatred. All people have a right to their feelings no matter how loathsome those feelings may be.

    What I do find about you that is distressing is that you can’t even be honest about your hatred and even claim to be close to people in the “tribe”. You are thus a liar and a bad one at that. You simply lack the courage to admit who you are and that does you no credit. Come out of the closet Bill and freely admit your hatred and perhaps you might become a man, rather than a coward hiding behind supposed “expert” opinion.

  113. I confess, mr. Spin Man. I DO hate stupidity, close-minded people, haters of
    any religious group, willfully ignorant people, hypocrites who denounce those who have different ideas, religious/ethnic zealots, self-styled judges, people who intentionally distort what they hear or read, propagandists,
    people who can’t think or reason logically, sheeple, people who use ad hominems when they can’t refute or rebut an argument, self-righteous
    people, those who willfully or negligently misstate what someone else says,
    thin-skinned wimps who become easily distressed whenever they encounter different ideas than their own long-held nonsense, closeted phonies such as some on this site (speak/confess for yourself), and those who try to shut down others who disagree with their nonsense.

  114. Bill.

    With regard to your post on 1:24 every single one of those things you claim to hate describes you completely and totally. Every single one of them.

    It would probably be good for you to re-evaluate your own self image and approach to your life.

  115. “I confess, mr. Spin Man. I DO hate stupidity, close-minded people, haters of
    any religious group, willfully ignorant people………..etc., etc. etc.”

    And you hate Jews but are too cowardly to admit it.

  116. first you, Mike the lying spinner: You are a disgusting liar, and I’m surprised that Prof. Turley allows you to post blatant lies. Unless you are a certified Psychic, you owe me and this blawg an apology for all of the lies you have told over the past few days, Lies that you are spreading, knowing that they are lies. You do not deserve a place at this table.

    D.S. – I have had plenty of time to determine that you are a lightweight who should stay in the shallow end of the pool where you belong.

  117. HA HA, Bill got all excited when I wasn’t even addressing him and had already stated my intention NOT TO. He thinks he made a point by saying I hadn’t answered his “proofs” — which I had already stated I was not going to do. And he started getting sexy again —

    But after he is finished with this session, I’m considering coming back on the thread and saying to him:

    “Bill, I’m a Jew. And I can beat you up. I’m smarter than you, stronger than you, and have a whole bunch of landsmen who are a lot better than you. Even if the Holocaust never happened that would still be true. HA HA HA!!

    “Oh, and here’s something for you to do that may help, in case it turns out that there really was a Holocaust or something (or maybe just a little minicaust or something): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-bsf2x-aeE

    So, what’daya think, guys, should I? Huh?

  118. U.S. Major General tells how he knows 9/11 wasn’t done by OBL, Malisha,
    or Hugo Chavez.

    Attn: kidz – this is by an expert. It has not been introduced as evidence in any court proceeding,afaik.

  119. Malisha 1, February 3, 2013 at 12:04 pm


    “With respect to the idea that “a person cannot be both a victim and a perpetrator,” that is, excuse me, the wrongest idea in the world.”

    Of course the idea is WRONG and may indeed be the MOST WRONG EVER idea but unfortunately it is the way an awful lot of humans think and explains the mutual incomprehension that exists between Israelis and their supporters and the Palestinians and theirs. I agree that all statements in your 5 point list describe how people who are victims do in fact act.

  120. Mike Spindell 1, January 30, 2013 at 9:48 am

    For a citizen of either Australia or the US to criticize the other nation of poor treatment of their respective indigenous peoples is an instance carbon stained kettles and pots.

    The six Australian colonies of the UK became an “independent” nation consisting of a federation of the six former colonies in 1901. Before this Aboriginal persons in South Australia at least had enjoyed the right to vote. Federation explicitly stripped them of this right, then up until the ’60s Aborigines were ignored as much as possible, the periodic censuses of the Australian population making no attempt to estimate their numbers. The only thing that I can say about Australia’s treatment of its indigenous people is that no white Australian if treated likewise would consider that treatment either moral or legal. I presume that a similar statement could be made about white Americans subjected to treatment similar to that given by the US to the Amerindians.

    If justice actually existed in this world, the US, Australia and Israel would be recognized as illegal colonies guilty of war crimes and all European descended inhabitants of all 3 colonies would be forcibly shipped back to Europe.

    If you want to read about the atrocities visited on the Un-Australian aborigines consult the works of Australia’s premier revisionist historian Henry Reynolds who demolishes all the pious orthodoxies about the failure of the indigenous people to thrive despite the kindness and generosity with which the rightful owners of the continent treated them.

    Australia was established as a penal colony a place to dump members of Britain’s underclass not evil enough to hang. Given the full resources of a continent belonging to someone else the underclass was rehabilitated and descendants of scumbag petty thieves who arrived on the first fleet now sneer at descendants of the people from whom the continent was stolen without any consciousness of how the transfer of resources from those ancestors made possible their own upward social mobility and the corresponding downward social mobility resulting in the abject state of those at whom they sneer.

    Henry Reynolds points out that the independent tribal groups were in fact miniature sovereign nations each with their own language. So each of these mini nations would have had their own word for the totality of the land. That they had some idea of the extent of the continent is evidenced by the existence of trade routes trading commodities thousand of miles from the point of origin. The main concern of white settlers was to stamp out Aboriginal people and if not the people at least the languages. You can’t leave the conquered people with a language in which they can say nasty things about the noble overlords without the latter understanding.
    In 1788 there were a lot of Aboriginal languages, how many we don’t know mainly because we did not want to know. Now their are only a few such languages left and most of them are at the brink of extinction.

  121. Mr. Moulton said:

    “If justice actually existed in this world, the US, Australia and Israel would be recognized as illegal colonies guilty of war crimes and all European descended inhabitants of all 3 colonies would be forcibly shipped back to Europe.”

    I hope you are prepared to be called an anti-semite Jew hater by the small but obnoxiously aggressive group of anti-free speech folks here. They have a low tolerance for anti-Zionist criticism and zero tolerance for information which conflicts with AIPAC propaganda. You’ll find out.

  122. @ Carlyle Moulton, many totally wrong ideas gain power by being repeated a lot as if they were ever either logical or proven. BTW, I was not trying to say how victimized people ARE or how they ACT, only how they CAN be and CAN act. They also can go completely other ways — none of it is “necessary and sufficient.”

  123. I would just like to make clear that Carlyle Moulton is an intelligent man whose comments I always welcome, whether I agree with him or not. While we have some differences regarding Israel, he is not a bigot and to my knowledge bears no hatred for Jews. Bill McWilliams, however, simply hates Jews as per his own statements.

  124. I see that another anonymous poster has emerged from the bowels of conspiracy land to challenge the truth of the Holocaust. For the edification of Mr. mcwilliams (or whatever his or her real name is), I offer the following:

    1. Competent evidence of an event is that which is of sufficient weight to persuade a reasonable person that the event actually occurred. No reasonable person can deny the competency of the massive amount of physical and documentary evidence compiled to show that the systematic killing of Jews was official German policy. Accordingly, it is of no consequence that you or Mr. Morsi’s aides or Mr. Ahmadinejad remain unconvinced.

    2. Arguments over the precise number of Jews killed in German camps are meaningless to anyone other than statisticians and revisionists.

    3. Germany and the German people stand condemned for an ideology which taught that certain groups of people were unfit to live. The condemnation would remain appropriate even were not a single camp created and not a single Jew killed.

    4. Hitler’s responsibility would not require proof of even one memorandum bearing his signature. The residual evidence of his policies would be more than sufficient.

    5. Those who deny proof of the Holocaust occupy the same moral plane as those who remind us that Mussolini made the trains run on time.

    6. Assertions concerning human rights violations and war crimes by our current president and his predecessor are well-founded, but wholly immaterial to the thread’s topic. Therefore, their inclusion in the thread is distracting and pointless.

    You may now go back to blogging on one of the Lew Rockwell sites.

  125. Malisha:

    I thought I had.

    But in any event, I was being sarcastic.

    ole BM is about the stoopidest person to ever comment here. There was one guy a few years ago who was a real POS, some kind of white supremacist type, a certified, card carrying racist. BM must be his brother, maybe half[wit] brother?

  126. Mike spindle –

    It’s time for you to put up or shut stfu. POST the statements which you (FALSELY) claim are my own admission that i “hate Jews”. I categorically deny ever saying such a thing. I strongly disagree with right-wing ZIONISTS and their criminal, immoral treatment of Palestinians, and I don’t know what your agenda here is, but it wouldn’t surprise me if your labeling of people as jew haters is something you are paid to do. Despite your liberal gatekeeping sermons, I don’t believe you are so stupid that you unintentionally twist comments in order to pretend to be outraged that some of us consider Israel to be guilty of violating the human rights of Palestinians, and thus you feel you can get away with playing the jew hater card.

    You are a dishonest and disgusting propagandist who has no right to misrepresent the views of others who disagree with your dual loyalty (dual citizenship?).

  127. Bron,
    You must be referring to Brent Waller, the Mississippi guy who was a big admirer of the white supremacy movement and Nathan Bedford Forrest. Brent was a real piece of work too.


  128. OS/Bron,

    I’ve got to give bill points for two things over Brent. One, bill can actually write in complete sentences. Two, BM are much more appropriate initials to describe his content than BW.

  129. bill mcwilliams:

    are you a Palestinian? Not that it matters but it might help if we knew.

    By the way I have seen Mike Spindell denounce certain isreali policies with which he didnt agree.

    you have lost any credibility you may have had, you just come across as a nut job. It is really kind of sad. But then maybe you are a sock puppet for Iran or Hezbollah?

  130. “Mike spindle –
    It’s time for you to put up or shut stfu. POST the statements which you (FALSELY) claim are my own admission that i “hate Jews”. I categorically deny ever saying such a thing.”

    (This was posted by me at 12:47pm on January 1st)
    Bill McW,

    I feel bad for the “members of the tribe” who you claim as relatives and in truth I think you are lying about that connection. Something that I’ve almost never done here is accuse someone who opposes Israel’s existence as anti-Jewish. In you case I won’t make an exception. However, I do accuse you of being a proven hater of Jews by your own words. Anyone who looks to the “protocols” hates Jews because they believe in a made up, poorly written fantasy. You have a right to hate whoever you please, but I in turn don’t hate you for your bigotry, I just think you’re pathetic.”

    The “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” was a 19th Century forgery of Russian origin that purportedly was a transcript of a Convention of “The Jews” to discuss their ongoing plan for world domination. I’ve linked to a history of it here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protocols_of_the_Elders_of_Zion , but this excerpt should be instructive:

    “The Protocols is a fabricated document purporting to be factual. It was originally produced in Russia between 1897 and 1903, possibly by Pyotr Ivanovich Rachkovsky, head of the Paris office of the Russian Secret Police, and unknown others.

    Source material for the forgery consisted jointly of “Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu” or “Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu”, an 1864 political satire by Maurice Joly and a chapter from Biarritz, an 1868 novel by the antisemitic German novelist Hermann Goedsche, which had been translated into Russian in 1872. ”

    Interestingly the “Protocols” were debunked in Russia in 1905 by the highest authorities in the Tsar’s government:

    “A subsequent secret investigation ordered by Pyotr Stolypin, the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers, came to the conclusion that the Protocols first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around 1897–1898. When Nicholas II learned of the results of this investigation, he requested, “The Protocols should be confiscated, a good cause cannot be defended by dirty means.” Despite the order, or because of the “good cause”, numerous reprints proliferated”

    Those reprints proliferated around anti-Jewish circles in Europe and came to the United States in this manner:

    “In the US, Henry Ford sponsored the printing of 500,000 copies, and, from 1920 to 1922, published a series of antisemitic articles titled “The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem”, in The Dearborn Independent, a newspaper he owned. In 1921, Ford cited evidence of a Jewish threat: “The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on. They are 16 years old, and they have fitted the world situation up to this time.” In 1927, however, the courts ordered Ford to retract his publication and apologize; he complied, claiming his assistants had duped him. He remained an admirer of Nazi Germany, however.”

    Now while I dislike Henry Ford on many levels for many things, he had one “admirable trait” and that was he was honest about his hatred of Jews. You on the other hand Bill are not honest about your hatred and you lie about your close association with Jews.

    Anyone who mentions the “Protocols” favorably, a thoroughly de-bunked forgery, is anti-Jewish by definition. Why are you so ashamed of your beliefs, or so cowardly that you can’t admit it?

    “I strongly disagree with right-wing ZIONISTS and their criminal, immoral treatment of Palestinians”

    Up above you referred to that treatment of Palestinians as a “Holocaust”. Now as Bron mentioned I’ve criticized many Israeli policies, but “Holocaust” is a very strong term. Its connotations are “purposeful murders done on a massive level”. You teamed the “Palestinian Holocaust”, with the Armenian
    Holocaust. In the Armenian Holocaust, a horrible stain on Turkey, over one million Armenians were slaughtered by firing squads and being immolated in burning buildings. While I admit there has been bad treatment of Palestinians, there is simply no evidence of anything even approaching a “holocaust”. The term is used though for propaganda purposes the de-legitimize Israel and Jews. It is almost always used in context of a denial of the NAZI “Shoah”, just as you’ve used it on this thread. You’ve thus proved yourself a “Jew Hater” by your own words, yet for some reason your moral cowardice keeps you from proudly admitting it.

  131. Mike –

    You just can’t help yourself, can you. You didn’t produce any comments where I said I hate Jews, but in your case I’m getting close to making an exception.

    Ask a Palestinian if they consider the way Israelis (and their sycophants like you) are guilty of perpetrating a Holocaust. There’s actually more evidence for that than the one claimed by people like you.

    Putting people in concentration camps, such as what the U.S. did to Japanese Americans may be considered bad treatment, and the ethnic cleansing of Native Americans may also be considered bad treatment, but the lies you’ve made up to demonize people as being anti-semitic because they believe that the so-called Holocaust is a gigantic propaganda hoax is
    something only a dishonest Arab and Germans hater would continue to promote now that so much research has revealed what really happened.

    Why do you hate free speech, Mike? This is America and that is UNAMERICAN.

  132. BM

    You still are not answering the questions.

    Do you hate Jewish people. YES or NO?

    Do you sympathize with neo-nazi teachings YES or NO?

    Do you hold racist beliefs, YES or NO ?

  133. BMcW,
    If you believe the fantasy that the holocaust was/is a hoax, you need to explain what happened to all those “missing” people. Did they just go and hide for several decades? Did they put in fake cadavers in the ovens to make it all look real? Maybe they hid millions of people on the moon.??

  134. “Why do you hate free speech, Mike? This is America and that is UNAMERICAN.”

    You are either incredibly stupid, which is probable, or you are simply a greater liar than I thought you were already. “Free Speech” is the unfettered right to express any beliefs you want, without censorship. Your cowardly mewling has not been censored in any way here. You incorrectly seem to define “free speech” as not having anyone critique your errors, or call out your bigotry. Quite simply you don’t have the right to make things up and not be called on it.

    “You didn’t produce any comments where I said I hate Jews, but in your case I’m getting close to making an exception.”

    What’s so funny is that I explained exactly why I called you a Jew hater. Not only did I do that but I specifically explained that you are careful to hide your bigotry by not specifically admitting to it. This is either cowardice, deceit, or both. As for making me a exception, that is nonsense since your hatred extends to wiping out the existence/memory of six million Jews. I will repeat that anybody who credits the truth of the “Protocols” hates Jews and you were the one to brig them up.

  135. Still lying, Mike. You claimed that I said that I’m a Jew hater, but you know I never said any such thing, so now you try to slither out of your lie by saying that you explained why you called me one! That’s an old trick people use when they get caught lying.

    You are as pathetic as they come. A pious preacher of Arab hate who knows there’s no evidence that six or twelve million jews were murdered, on the orders of Hitler. That’s like saying that Net and Yahoo ordered the murder of thousands of Palestinian men, women, and children.

    I’m sorry, but you have proven yourself to be little more than a liar and propagandist for a country that growing numbers of people here and around the world are beginning to loathe.

    Why do you hate AMERICA, Mike?

  136. “You claimed that I said that I’m a Jew hater”

    No. He claimed you are a Jew hater by the implicit nature of your statements but that you were too much of a coward (or a liar) to explicitly say you are a Jew hater. Which is a perfectly reasonable reading of your Holocaust denier drivel, bill.

    Why do you equivocate and spew right wing anti-Semitic talking points, bill?

    Frustrated that people here are too smart to buy your bullshit?

  137. It’s probably time for Bill McWilliams to no longer contribute to this blog. His statements are not contributing to the benefit of the readers and while he has a right to his opinion, it is clear that the upsetting statements he makes to certain groups of the population are not outweighed by any insights he might provide.

    Personally, I don’t see any redeeming qualities to merit further contrubutions from this user.

    Speaking for myself Bill, I request that you no longer contribute.

  138. A few tidbits for those here who don’t feel threatened by discussion of
    controversial topics:

    These are from comments I read on the Veterans Today site.

    “David Irving offered 1,000 pounds sterling for any document that reflected an order from the German command that even obliquely hinted at exterminating theJews. None exists. It didn’t happen.”

    “The International Red Cross, formally and officially reported that less than 300,000 internees of all nationalities in the German camps died of all causes, including old age.(3) And of these, barely more than half were Jews. Most of these died in several severe typhoid epidemics caused by wartime conditions, which claimed many lives throughout Germany – including those of doctors, nurses and camp administrative personnel”.

    “As an engineer,I find it impossible from the surviving blueprints,to believe that
    Germans,who compulsively over engineer everything ,could have designed the camps for
    mass genocide.
    For the 11 million that supposedly died within them,Jews,Gypsies,Slavs,homosexuals,communists.
    The math simply doesn’t work for the crematoria.
    So that is not true,what else is untrue ?
    The victors always write the history.”

  139. It sounds like David Irving owes Christopher Browning a thousand pounds.

    You do realize that David Irving is the Holocaust denier that Browning’s evidence helped defeat in court, right? You know. That expert testimony I presented that you couldn’t be bothered to read, bill? You know. The testimony that proves, yes, Nazi documents ordering actions in furtherance of the Final Solution exist contrary to Irving’s claim that they didn’t?


  140. And this:

    For the knee-jerks here, note that I did not write any of the quotes I’m posting, nor am I saying they are inviolate and above being challenged.

    Okay, read, then fire your lies, false interpretations and other indications that you are unable to refute what you read, and for people like Gene — please don’t bother reposting any documents that are NOT OFFICIAL German Government documents and then say, imply, or infer that they
    refute what I’ve posted. That old dog won’t hunt anymore.

    “The first trials of Germans accused of having used “gas chambers” or “gas vans” to kill people began in 1943 in the Soviet Union (trials of Kharkov and Krasnodar). They continue to this day, especially in Israel with the Demjanjuk trial. Today, after 47 years of such trials we still do not have:
    A single on-site forensic examination of “gassed” bodies or “gas chambers” or “gas vans”;
    A single expert report concluding that a given room or a given van was used for homicidal gassing;
    A single autopsy report concluding that the victim had been killed by any type of poison gas;
    A single report on the re-enactment or simulation of a gassing operation, using the thousands of victims claimed and the steps taken, and taking into account the dangerous chemicals involved.

  141. “The American Historical Association Council strongly deplores the publicly reported attempts to deny the fact of the Holocaust. No serious historian questions that the Holocaust took place.”
    ~Governing council, unanimous declaration, American Historical Association

  142. Mespo — did you know that very few U.S. historians question the Warren Report – even though the U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee
    on Assassinations concluded that President Kennedy was probably killed as the result of a CONSPIRACY. They were right, even though they did weasel a bit (“probably”).

  143. Bill:

    I think you are sick, you need help. Seriously, there is something very wrong with you. It is deeply disturbing.

  144. The definition of crazy: doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different outcome.
    Bill, you can say it over and over as many times as you want, you can ignore all the real world testimony and proof, you can resort to name calling and impugning one;s patrotism and Americanism but, at the end of the day, you will still be called out as wrong, because you are.

  145. So who’s right: The Warren Report’s finding that a lone nut killed JFK and DPD officer Tippit – or The U.S. Congress finding that there was a conspiracy to assassinate the President…even though most U.S. historians do not question the approved story i.e., the lone nut theory?

  146. Bigotry appears in many forms. It may be expressed directly, as occurs with organizations in which the identity of the hated group is identified in their publications. It may be in the form of an unwritten understanding, the traditional manner in which those who fancy themselves culturally civilized protect the integrity of their social connections and private clubs.

    The most dangerous form of bigotry, however, is that which comes clothed in intellectual pretension, denying malicious intent and insisting that its views are based upon scholarly studies and meticulous research, while demanding that its opponents produce countervailing “evidence.” Mr. mcwilliams belongs to this school.

    I laughed when he referred to the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a document which anyone with a lick of sense knows has all of the authencity of David Irving’s historical writings. I laughed again when I checked his YouTube link and found a video of Bishop Richard Williamson, a protege of the late Marcel Lefebvre, both of whom were excommunicated for their virulent anti-Semitism and absurd theology of deicide.

    The pseudo-scholarship of these Holocaust deniers reminds me of nothing so much as the plague of fundamentalist bible colleges that have begun to pollute the landscape across America, institutions whose faculties confer degrees on each other and then cite their colleagues’ writings in support of their own. So no, Mr. mcwilliams, I don’t need to unearth a statement in which you claim to hate Jews to establish your anti-Semitism any more than I would need to dig up a statement by James Dobson that he hates gays in order to prove the homophobia of the Family Research Council.

  147. Nice try, Counselor, but we already know that you deny the Palestine Holocaust, Armenian Holocaust, Native American Holocaust, the Russian Holocaust ( Stalin-led) etc,

    I believe you are one of the folks who ridicule conspiracy analysts (calling them What all truth deniers call them conspiracy THEORISTS), so I’m trying to get you and your fellow travelers to put aside your insults long enough to
    take a position on the JFK murder… or do you people contend it was a case of suicide?

    Quit the evasions, and state your position. The time for wimping out is over.

  148. Bill,

    Trying to derail the thread onto other subjects won’t work, and besides, if you would bother to read some of Mike Spindell’s guest posts and comments you would know what he thinks of the JFK assassination and many other issues.

    The issue of this thread is holocaust denial — which you subscribe to — and yet you provide laughable “evidence” to support your position. This thread is your opportunity to show the results of your years of study on the subject and explain your position.

    It’s obvious you can’t, so I would agree with Darren above in that you have no, “redeeming qualities to merit further contributions.”

  149. gbk – If you think that YOU can prove there was a CONSPIRACY, ordered by Hitler. to murder six or twelve million Jews, then let’s hear what you have to say. I’m used to dealing with right-wingers who always resort to attacking the messenger when they can’t rebut or refute the argument — but I’m a little bit surprised at how many closeted right-wingers post on this forum.. using that same tactic, seemingly oblivious to the fact that they are, in reality conspiracy theorists – when it comes to all those holocausts they believe in + 9/11, JFK, RFK, MLK, Senator Wellstone, WMD, Apollo flights that never went higher than low Earth orbit etc. They, and you, I guess, believe in THOSE conspiracies, but when you and them are challenged, you go running to the shelter of attacking the messenger – as though that’s a logical argument, when it’s a sign of inability to deal with the message.

    Now, go ahead and tell us WHY you believe in the HItler Holocaust Conspiracy.

  150. What gbk and Darren said.

    He is really getting tiresome and is embarrassing both himself and this blog. Always wrong, never uncertain.

  151. Your whining the same tune is making me think your cranial department is empty and closed.

    Get somebody to read some of the points I’ve been raising and see if YOU can show me what you think is wrong with them, or are you content to just be another one of the folks whose idea of responding to a message that you can’t refute – to attack and insult the messenger. How old are you, O.S.? Maybe it’s past your bedtime.

  152. Bill,

    You’re the one making the extraordinary claim. Your position is the one that need be proven. Come on, get out your Institute For Historical Review pamphlet and convince us of your position.

  153. Yep.

    Your previous claims have all been refuted with evidence of a better quality than you presented, bill. On rebuttal, the burden of proof rests with you and only you.

  154. Bill:

    we havent gone back to the moon in nearly 40 years have we, makes one wonder doesnt it?

    Where were the smokestacks on the gas chambers?

    How about the Illuminati and the Bilderbergers?

  155. Bill:

    We live in a time where it seems most people outsource their own logical thinking to someone else while embracing and ipsy dixit argument most likely because they can not deal with the cognative dissonance that is felt by anyone that has spent little time fact finding. You have dealt with your cognative dissonance by following facts rather than cowering in your safe zone. Cheers!

  156. That would be ipse dixit, not ipsy, and in Latin it means “He, himself, said it”. It’s also known as the bare assertion fallacy – when an arbitrary dogmatic term or statement is used which the speaker expects the listener to accept as valid without evidence or substantive logic.

    Which oddly enough is an exact description of bill’s behavior.

    Someone here is certainly playing with their ipse dixit.

    His initials are BM.

    Of course, now he has your help, Dan.

  157. What ever makes you happy Gene. I know you are but what am I is a sign of defeat, I accept the white flag and you should choose to be discomforted by the facts but follow them, even though it is uncomfortable.

  158. No, Dan. Precision in terms is the enemy of deceit. That’s what you get for using a term you not only didn’t know how to spell, but manifestly what it meant either. But go ahead and declare victory. It’s funny considering you’ve offered even less evidence or logic than bill in support of Holocaust deniers.

  159. Gene, again I know you are but what am I… and top it off by “But go ahead and declare victory. It’s funny considering you’ve offered even less evidence or logic than bill in support of Holocaust deniers.” Thank you. I am happy I was so impressionalbe without facts or evidence, just by pointing out the psychology behind it. Thanks again.

  160. There is plenty of evidence presented upthread.

    Your willingness to ignore it, inability to read it and/or inability to understand it notwithstanding, Dan.

    A Holocaust denier, David Irving, got his hat handed to him in court for the very same claims bill was making and I provided a key piece of evidence used to hand Irving his loss.

    Your denial of the facts is irrelevant.

  161. Again an ipse dixit argument….. because the court said so. I guess you feel judges are completely unbias, and what they say is fact always. I try to let science guide my fact finding not politics, popularity, or a court. Congrats at being a part of the team that “provided a key piece of evidence used to hand Irving his loss” Do you normally just make stuff up?

  162. No. Because the evidence said so.

    Really, you should stay away from terms you don’t understand. It makes you look like as much of a pseudo-intellectual and fraud as being a Holocaust denier does. If you have evidence of bias in either judgement or evidence in the Irving trial? Submit it. Or realize you yourself are making an ipse dixit argument.

    As for making stuff up? I didn’t make up anything. I simply provided, above, a copy of the expert testimony used successfully against David Irving. Facts that survived the evidentiary process and were used in court. Again, your willingness to ignore it, inability to read it and/or inability to understand it notwithstanding, Dan.

  163. And Dan? You’re really going to have to learn to argue better or I’m simply going to keep making you look like a monkey. I can argue a rock into gravel and running circles around you Holocaust deniers doesn’t even come close to a challenge.

    Carry on.

  164. Gene,
    I don’t get it. Miles of movie film, hundreds of thousands of photos, sworn testimony of hundreds of witnesses in a number of trials, a dwindling number of survivors still telling their grim stories of what it was like, and the untold thousands of pages of carefully documented captured records do not make a dent in the true believer’s conviction they have the sole truth. Based on the delusional belief system of a handful of racists and anti-semites. Wow.

    Now if we can get some of what they are smoking for less than $200 an ounce, maybe we can get happy too.

  165. Gene when you say “go ahead and declare victory” what does that mean, are you conceding or, maybe you have a diffrent meaning? You may want to sign yourself up for america’s got talent for that rock trick you can do, really quite impressive. Have you ever dealt with cognative dissonance while reasearching major world events and if so how did you deal with it?

  166. Gene H, you said, “Someone here is certainly playing with their ipse dixit.”

    Sorry, I have to call you on that one. Should be:

    “Someone here is certainly playing with his or her ipse dixit.”

    The Holocaust Denier inflicts it, 👿
    While playing with his “ipse dixit,” 🙄
    But while he’s debating, :mrgreen:
    It’s so elongating, ➡ ➡ ➡
    It breaks and nobody can fix it! 😳

  167. I will not do your homework for you. What type of evidence are you looking for Gene? If you can move a rock with words what does evidence even mean to you, you have special powers, my words are no match for your magic, supported solely by “personal testomony”.

  168. Dan,

    If you don’t want to present evidence to back your claims?

    You lose.

    Sorry. That’s how argument works.

    Your boy presented his claim and evidence, the group presented higher quality evidence and argument he was unable to rebut. However, if you wish to pick up his standard, the burden of proof rests with you on rebuttal.

    Get to work, slacker.


    You are a master of the limerick. BTW, I snorted coffee when I read “I am sorr.”:mrgreen:

  169. Dan,
    Evidence, per the rules of any competent trier of fact (a trier of fact is the Court and jury), includes first hand testimony (hearsay is not admissible). It may include photographs, film that has not been manipulated (almost impossible before Photoshop), official documents that have been authenticated, and documents written contemporaneously such as diaries and interview notes.

    Here is one part of a multi-part documentary newsreel put together shortly after the camps were liberated by allied troops. You want evidence sport, here is a tiny sampling of the miles of film made by both professional journalists as well as army photographers. This is Part 4. You can easily find the rest of the multi-part series. The primary thing missing is the smell. Watch the whole thing if you have the guts.

  170. You want more sport? Here you go. This is a documentary on Jasenovac, not the largest but considered one of the worst camps for the “Final Solution.”

  171. OS & Gene,

    You’ve proven and reproven your case beautifully and argued eloquently. The problems is unfortunately, as you well know, that bigots are never interested in truth, only the false evidence that re-inforces their bigotry. Bill & Dan, if indeed they are two people, are only here to spout their hatred and it seems not even capable of making more than the lamest case. Just further examples of how pathetically some people need other people to hate, in order to stop loathing themselves.

  172. Mike,
    If they think they are going to get the last word, they underestimate Gene and me. My banker once told me, while I was giving a car dealer a hard time, that I had the patience of a pipe smoker. I also have the mental set of a Scottish Border Collie. I am not about to let one get away. If you recall, Brentley did not get the last word either.

  173. Bill, I mean, Dan:

    I am going to use your own rules of evidence, as bizarre as they are, to show that you are flat wrong in your position about the holocaust.

    In your link that you provided in how to argue against people who deny your conspiracy theorist views one of the tenants of that and your own statements is that if the opposing person does not argue back your position then you are correct in your position.

    Nearly everyone here has said that you are, among other things, a bigot, a holocaust denier, a neo-nazi sympathizer, an admirer of adolf hitler, a hater of Jewish people and a person that foolishly clings to fantastic and wild claims that have mountains and miles of evidence proving otherwise; to which you have not replied or answered. So according to your own set of rules we must all be correct in our positions, that is because you do not reply.

    Now for a real world measure.

    Everything Malisha, Otteray, Gene, Mike, Mark and me said about your countless logical errors, evidence weighing, and questioning your opinions is spot on and yours are horribly and fatally flawed. And this is evidence by everything they have provided.

    But the pragmatic side of me knows that you are going to continue as you do to be lame about it, so I will put it succinctly.

    Here is the pattern you follow.

    Bill: “Outlandish Statement”

    Anyone Else: That is not the case as evidenced by A, B, C, D, etc with provenence of 1,2,3,4

    Bill: Anyone else, you don’t know what you’re talking about, you are just a fascist anarchist that believes what Obummer says.

    Anyone Else: Prove your position

    Bill: I don’t have to do your homework. There is no evidence that adolf hitler wrote a memo that read “I am the walrus” You haven’t proven anything.

    Everyone Else: Cut and pastes legions of evidence into the blog

    Bill: Again, you haven’t proven anything. Nowhere in the German archives did anyone say “Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna” And the Pentagon was hit by a missile because a jackalope in Idaho speaks French.

    etc, etc.

    You see, when a person has a debate with a worthy opponent, people like me and some of the others do not have to resort to riducule because it is wrothwhile to argue the points. You on the other hand refuse to offer any evidence to support your position, and blindly deny any fact anyone other than yourself presents. So, all that is left for us to do is to ridicule you. While this is somewhat out of place for this legal / justice blog, I am sure that many will make a small exception in order to bask in the schadenfreude of watching you be made fun of and the spectacle of you making yourself look like a shimmering full-blown technicolor idiot.

    And to a great extent it is healthy thing for people to watch bigoted, nazi sympathizing fools be pummelled as soundly as you have been because it is not every day society gets to see bigots like you ripped a new one. It is a worthy public service.

  174. There once was a fellow named Bill
    who was always espousing some swill.
    Some folks here would read it
    But others delete it —
    It seems he was mentally ill.

    There once was a fellow named Dan.
    He was Bill. 😆

  175. 法案の俳句 (Haiku no Bill / Bill’s Haikus)

    Magnificent Reflection

    Mirror, I see me
    Shining wisdom , keen insight
    The tin foil glimmers


    Field Trip

    Gas chamber falsehoods
    Only showers, dressing room
    Zyklon-B and me

  176. You people are pathetic. You guys should move to a country where if you came across someone who was not aligned with the “offical story” would be jailed. Throwing around false assertions about me just because I gave Bill a thumbs up for not cowering into a corner and standing up, again cheers Bill.

    Do you know anything about the Belfore agreement?
    Have you looked at Red Cross numbers?
    Have you spent any time looking at World almanic population numbers?
    Have you looked at any history about the Rothchild family.
    Have you ever been courious about the power and influence of central banks?
    What country is the only on earth that is allows to be a dual citizen while holding high office in the US?

    I could go on and on, but my time would be wasted I am sure.

    Don’t let me rain on your parade, don’t look into any of the above I think Idol is comming on soon.

  177. No, Dan.

    You’re being dismissed because you’re a ridiculous bigot (and probably crazy person) with no substantive evidence of your assertions.

    I thought that would be clear by now.

    Then again, clarity of thought isn’t your strong suit.

  178. Gene, nice come back, another indication you are at a loss of words and most likely too chicken sh** to look in things that are apherantly too troubling for you. Whell if you get over you fear of discovery, you may discover a common theme, but I’m sure the bar is to high.

    As far as me being Bill, LMFAO, that is very common tactic used by people in denial.

  179. Nothing is troubling me at all, Dan.

    I’m not the one flailing about trying to prove something that manifestly did happen, didn’t happen.

    I think making clowns like you look like, well, clowns, is both entertaining and a public service.

    Carry on.

    Oh, and by the way, those were words. Something I’m almost never at a loss for. And as for you being bill? False consensus by assumption of multiple identities is a common tactic of trolls. If the bridge fits? Wear it.

  180. Dan:

    If you arent BM, I am sh11tting myself thinking there is more than one of you nut jobs in this world.

    Even if the Nazis only killed a few hundred thousand souls, it is good enough for me to call those ba$tard$ evil and guilty of a holocaust and crimes against humanity.

    People who can excuse the Nazis have given up the right to call themselves human beings. They are nothing but animals having willfully given up rational thought.

  181. You seem to like throwing darts and sticking to your ipse dixit argument. Your tactic of ignoring everything you want and focus on what backs up your preconceved idea. Sorry Gene the world is more complex than that. You live in a mentality where facts land on you lap, and the truth comes out of the low hanging facts. Stop eating the drive through facts to support the “offical story” and do a little reasearch. Then again maybe you should not because from what I read you don’t have the integrity or the backbone for any type of home made research, stick to the drive through Gene, its soo tasty isn’t it.

  182. Bron ??? You have absolutely no idea what I think so keep your speculation to yourself. I hope you had your depends on. The remedy I suggest for shi**ng youself is less drive through. Do you normally assert thing based solely on feelings?

  183. Dan:

    Do you normally assert things based solely on having sh1t for brains? If your first post above is any indication, you are a holocaust denier which means you are a Nazi supporter/apologist.

    Either way you slice it, you are a POS if you support or apologize for Nazis.

    The remedy for not having sh1t for brains is to renounce the Nazis. Even if the Nazis killed only rats and mice, they would still suck based on their political and economic beliefs.

    If you renounce your Nazi sympathies, I will apologize and admit I was wrong.

  184. I’m not relying upon anything but the evidence, Dan. And I am an expert on evaluating evidence whereas you manifestly wouldn’t know evidence if it bit you on the ass. I’m also willing to bet I’ve read a lot more about the history of WWII than you have. I’ve researched the War from many different angles; strategic, tactical, economic, legal, sociological, psychological. If you can’t provide sufficient evidence to support your contentions? You lose. As you have lost up to this point. If you can? I suggest you bring it, sport. I’ll be glad to slap you down again. I’m also an expert on argumentation, logic and rhetoric. So bring your “A” game. However, I’m betting you’ve already played your “A” game.

    Sad as that is.

    As for your “tasty” comment? There is nothing “tasty” about the truth of the Holocaust or WWII. It’s a low mark in human history. The truth is often anything but “tasty” but it is true. “If any man is able to convince me and show me that I do not think or act right, I will gladly change; for I seek the truth by which no man was ever injured. But he is injured who abides in his error and ignorance.”

    So far the only thing you’ve convinced me of is 1) you have no evidence that supports your argument, 2) you have no ability to discern evidence let alone the quality of that evidence, 3) your argument skills are on par with those of a rhesus monkey and 4) you’re a bigot, an imbecile and a crazy person in no particular order. Everything but number four is material argumentation. Four is simply ad hominem ridicule because it is what clowns like you deserve.

    The burden of proof still rests with you, bill, er, Dan, and it consists of more than saying you have special knowledge due to your “home made” research. That’s called “pleading to special knowledge” and it’s not only a logical fallacy in its own right, its one of the subset of fallacies that fall under the rubric of ipse dixit.

    You aren’t going to win by compounding logical fallacies on top of insufficient evidence.

    So, come on, genius.

    Give it your best shot. Change my mind. Prove me wrong. Argumentation is a form of martial art. Verbal jujitsu. I am exceedingly good at it. I do it for fun. There are some people here who can hold their own against me. There are a couple who can even present a challenge. But you? It’s going to be just like it has been up to this point, like Elmer Fudd versus Bruce Lee.

    You think you can win this argument?

    I’m going to continue to be on you like white on rice in a glass of milk on a paper plate in a snowstorm.

    Personally, I’d suggest you run along over to Stormfront or Infowars or some other forum that is more amenable to your delusions.

    Nothing but defeat, sorrow and disappointment await you here. We’re a logic and evidence based sort of crowd. So far, you’ve presented a staggering lack of either.

  185. Gene H:

    “3) your argument skills are on par with those of a rhesus monkey”

    I am going with 3 as it supports my assertion that anyone who sympathizes with the Nazis has given up rational thought.

  186. Dan, Bill or whoever you are,
    Where are your reasoned arguments. You asked if we looked at other discredited conspiracy theories and some European family histories. What does that have to do with the price of tea in China? Where is the evidence? You know, the stuff presented and vetted in courts of law.

    I did a little research. None of the prominent Holocaust denies possess any kind of advanced degree in contemporary history or has conducted peer reviewed research in history. When asked for proof, the typical response is that the miles of film, hundreds of thousands of photographs, testimony of tens of thousands of people who knew what was going on and the sworn testimony presented in war crimes courts were all faked. Really? If you are that freaking gullible, I have the deed to some great beachfront property in Montana to sell you.

    In 1943, in one of the several live recordings remaining, SS chief Heinrich Himmler said:

    I also want to mention a very difficult subject before you here, completely openly.
    It should be discussed amongst us, and yet, nevertheless, we will never speak about it in public.
    Just as we did not hesitate on June 30 to carry out our duty, as ordered, and stand comrades who had failed against the wall and shoot them.
    About which we have never spoken, and never will speak.
    That was, thank God, a kind of tact natural to us, a foregone conclusion of that tact, that we have never conversed about it amongst ourselves, never spoken about it, everyone shuddered, and everyone was clear that the next time, he would do the same thing again, if it were commanded and necessary.
    I am talking about the “Jewish evacuation”: the extermination of the Jewish people.
    It is one of those things that is easily said. “The Jewish people is being exterminated,” every Party member will tell you, “perfectly clear, it’s part of our plans, we’re eliminating the Jews, exterminating them, ha!, a small matter.”
    And then along they all come, all the 80 million upright Germans, and each one has his decent Jew. They say: all the others are swine, but here is a first-class Jew.
    And none of them has seen it, has endured it. Most of you will know what it means when 100 bodies lie together, when there are 500, or when there are 1000. And to have seen this through, and — with the exception of human weaknesses — to have remained decent, has made us hard and is a page of glory never mentioned and never to be mentioned.
    Because we know how difficult things would be, if today in every city during the bomb attacks, the burdens of war and the privations, we still had Jews as secret saboteurs, agitators and instigators. We would probably be at the same stage as 1916-17, if the Jews still resided in the body of the German people.
    We have taken away the riches that they had, and I have given a strict order, which Obergruppenführer Pohl has carried out, we have delivered these riches completely to the Reich, to the State. We have taken nothing from them for ourselves. A few, who have offended against this, will be [judged] in accordance with an order, that I gave at the beginning: He who takes even one Mark of this is a dead man.
    A number of SS men have offended against this order. There are not very many, and they will be dead men – WITHOUT MERCY! We have the moral right, we had the duty to our people to do it, to kill this people who wanted to kill us. But we do not have the right to enrich ourselves with even one fur, with one Mark, with one cigarette, with one watch, with anything. That we do not have. Because at the end of this, we don’t want, because we exterminated the bacillus, to become sick and die from the same bacillus.
    I will never see it happen, that even one bit of putrefaction comes in contact with us, or takes root in us. On the contrary, where it might try to take root, we will burn it out together. But altogether we can say: We have carried out this most difficult task for the love of our people. And we have taken on no defect within us, in our soul, or in our character.

    Two days after making the above speech, Himmler again spoke, also recorded again:

    We came to the question: what to with the women and children? I decided to find a clear solution here as well. I did not consider myself justified to exterminate the men – that is, to kill them or have them killed – and allow the avengers of our sons and grandsons in the form of their children to grow up. The difficult decision had to be taken to make this people disappear from the earth. For the organisation which had to execute this task, it was the most difficult which we had ever had. But it was accomplished, and without — I believe I can say — our men and their leaders suffering any mental or spiritual damage.

    Those early audio recordings are still in existence, as are the original transcripts in German.

    In the early days, the Nazis were convinced they were doing something of great historical importance and made recordings of what they considered important. At the end of the war, they did not have time to destroy all the recordings, and many were preserved in usual meticulous German fashion. What has not shown to be fake is the Herculean efforts by Nazis and various stripes of neo-Nazis to mount continuing efforts at cover-ups, denials and calumnies to camouflage their raging anti-semitism.

  187. Bron,

    I think you’re on safe ground. But #4 was arguably ad hominem. It doesn’t go to his argument, but to his person. However, it is possible to argue that it falls into the ad hominem exception since as a claimant, billDan is relying largely upon his mere assertions as proof sufficient ergo attacking his credibility as a witness on the grounds of his lack of character (bias among other things), intelligence and sanity would be valid.

  188. Dan,

    “What country is the only on [only one on] earth that is [sic] allows [a person] to be [hold] a dual citizen [citizenship] while holding high office in the US?”

    This is a really funny question — not due to the grammar, nor detracting from your other questions — because it is self-contradictory. How can there be only one country that allows dual citizenship while holding high office in the US? Wouldn’t this situation require at least two countries?

    I’ll be impressed when you find the building and land where “they” faked all the WWII footage and Apollo moon landing footage. I’m sure it exists, somewhere.

  189. Mike, the offical story is so much more than “Did Hitler really exist”. By your question in you words I would have agree you a re not a lemming by questioning. But reasearch should be able to answer that very quickly. You should have some information showing Hitler didn’t exist. if so please post where I can read about this. Fascinating.

  190. WTF, Hitler didn’t exist? Wow. Talk about going off on a tangent. How about addressing the speech Himmler made that was recorded live. How about addressing the films made at the time the camps were liberated.

    Where did the hundreds of thousands of shoes of men, women and children come from that were found by Russian soldiers at the camps they liberated in Poland? What about all those mass graves and crematora found by Russian, British and American troops as they overran Germany and their conquered countries? How about the mass execution chamber found in a bunker under the Eiffel Tower in Paris, where people were both shot and burned alive?

    Where is your EVIDENCE sport? Or just keep on with the anti-semitic crap. You have shown your true colors as being both ignorant and racist. What do you do for an encore?

  191. Bill wrote:
    But reasearch should be able to answer that very quickly. You should have some information showing Hitler didn’t exist. if so please post where I can read about this. Fascinating
    How about you posting any evidence to support your positions above? You won’t do it because you have none. But you are so quick to demand other do so. Furthermore you still refuse to answer if you hate Jewish people and if you are a nazi sympathizer.

  192. You can only hit your head against a brick wall so many times. For the first time I have unsubscribed to a post, tired of Bill and Don inability to hear anything but their own voices.

  193. I have stayed sincere and logical. You people make things up and get in to name calling. This is par for the course for people who do not lift a finger and do a little unbias work. I have done my victory lap on my second post, thanks for that Gene. Good Bye.

  194. Otteray Scribe:

    “Where did the hundreds of thousands of shoes of men, women and children come from that were found by Russian soldiers at the camps they liberated in Poland?”

    I know, the Nazis had a secret ship that came to the US and raided all of the Goodwill bins all over the country and then came back and stacked all the shoes up for pictures.

    I read this in many reliable works on World War II. Dan will be able to vouch for this fact as he has probably read the same books.

  195. Dan, you may be sincere, but you are a long way from being logical. Have a nice day with your denier circle jerk buddies, none of whom are legitimate scholars or researchers.

    You have yet to respond to any of the actual evidence folks have presented here. None. You just keep doing the broken record bit of wanting us to watch YouTube videos with no provenance, and for some reason research some European family histories as if that were to prove anything. Every family has at least one horse thief ancestor, so what does that prove?

    What I am really waiting for is a true analytical dissection of the Himmler speeches I posted above in which you “prove” Himmler was not talking about the extermination of who he called “undesirables” and Jews. That will take logical contortions worthy of a gold medal.

  196. I would like to take this chance to apologize to rhesus monkeys everywhere. Even they are smart enough to know the difference between “victory lap” and “running away”.

    In case you’re having a problem understanding that, billDan, let me break that down for you. Victory would have looked like you convincing someone, anyone, that your logics and evidence was true and prevailed as persuasive. Running away looks like you leaving without convincing anyone of anything other than you’re a big ol’ racist POS with no evidence who couldn’t argue his way out of a wet paper bag.

    Do you see anyone other than yourself being convinced of the truth of your assertions?


    Ergo, your movement is not made in victory but rather ignominious defeat.

    Now go away or I shall taunt you a second time.

  197. “Bron ??? You have absolutely no idea what I think so keep your speculation to yourself.”


    Of course Bron knows what you think, at least on the issue of this blog, it is in your writing. You hate Jews and therefore are a bigot. You also try to exculpate one of the two most evil people of the 20th Century (Stalin is the other) from blame in one of the great crimes of that Century. I can see you now goosestepping in front of a mirror in liedenhausen, while listening to “Deutschland Uber Alles.

  198. Mike, if he is goosestepping, is it possible to be out of step if you are alone in front of your vanity mirror? If it is Dan/bill could no doubt pull it off.

    Now I have piddled around on this computer machine long enough. I better get to work. It is a good thing I don’t have a smart phone or I would never get anything done. My colleagues at work spend more time fiddling with theirs than they do working. Hope everyone has a great afternoon.

    And Bron, we disagree on some things political, but on this we are definitely all on the same page. Good man. I will send you an invoice for that new keyboard.:mrgreen:

  199. “Did Hitler really exist? I know that that’s the “official” story, but I’m not a lemming.”

    Mike A.,

    He did exist. He was a social worker helping the poor people in Munich and running Germany in his spare time, when it was viciously attacked by the monsters in Czechoslovakia prodded on by the “World Jewish Conspiracy”. The Jew President Rosenberg (aka Roosevelt) then followed through with the plan to create Israel by starting World War II. Hitler felt so afraid for the Jews that he rounded them up into well protected camps to ensure their well being.
    His greatest mistake was in trusting those Jews not to undermine the Third Reich, while living it up in those camps. After the war they all went to Israel and became rich.

  200. Dan:

    can you please comment on Mike Spindell’s synopsis of World War II? It seems quite accurate to me, at least from your point of view.

  201. “that was such a succinct outline of World War II, how do you do it?


    Some people like Dan are so apparent in their beliefs, even from so short a writing sample, that you almost know what they’re thinking. They are the least interesting people who comment here. The truth about all parts of the political spectrum is that it is not divided by good or bad, nor by isms really. The reality is that there are people who might hold beliefs, but are not doctrinaire and willing to entertain other ideas. You and I disagree about a lot in politics and economics, but what ever those disagreements are, I recognize that you think about things and at times can be surprisingly non doctrinaire. You also have demonstrated that you are a person with compassion. All people like Dan/Bill have is their bigotry and hatred, which they reinforce by only allowing information from sources that bolster their views. This thread demonstrates the truth of that. They never once responded to any points disagreeing with them, except through disparagement, rather than argument. Other than those two (one?) everyone not only disagreed with them, but that “everyone” represented very varied views.

  202. Mike S:

    Thank you for your kind comments.

    I was hoping for a more tongue in cheek answer.

    But you are amazing in any event.

  203. “he also united all of europe to fight the bolsheviks”


    Forgot that. One might say he was the Father of the European Union. A misunderstood hero. Neat mustache too.

  204. “I was hoping for a more tongue in cheek answer.”


    At least in my writing I’m a pedantic old Fart, in reality though I don’t take myself all that seriously.:)

  205. Mike Spindell.

    You asked me about Australian Aboriginal languages. This evening part of the answer came across the airwaves through my car radio. There are only 145 languages remaining and 110 of those are in trouble.

    How many were there initially, no one knows as the colonists were more concerned with killing off the speakers than with recording the languages.

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