Jerusalem Ultra-Orthodox Groups Display Public Posters Demanding That Women Avoid Main Street

Posters in Jerusalem neighborhoods have reminded women of the hold of orthodox groups over life in the city. The posters ask women in an ultra-Orthodox Jerusalem neighborhood to avoid the main street during the intermediate days of the religious holiday of Sukkot. So women are expected to use side streets in the town of Mea Sharim, one of the oldest Jewish neighbourhoods in Jerusalem, to avoid men seeing them.

The posters are a circumvention of a decision of the High Court of Justice. The Court banned the use of partitions on public streets to protect ultra-orthodox men from temptation.

The posters tell women “Only go through side streets, and in general minimse visits in the (Mea Shearim) neighborhood in those hours.”

Secular organizations have objected to the posters, though so long as the groups are making requests rather than orders, they might have the law on their side. After all, why aren’t such posters covered under free speech?

41 thoughts on “Jerusalem Ultra-Orthodox Groups Display Public Posters Demanding That Women Avoid Main Street”

  1. “Secular organizations have objected to the posters,…”

    While the posters most certainly should be covered under free speech, are not the objections voiced by the representatives of these secular organizations also covered under free speech. So long as they are not enforcing their objections through the law and the power of the state or acts of violence or intimidation, their right to object is equal in standing and justification to that of those who put up the posters.

  2. Prof. Turley, your point was what? To demonstrate that the vast majority of your commentariat consists of adolescents?

  3. If it is a request, and women will not be bullied or reprimanded, then it falls under free speech.

    That issue aside, I don’t understand. Are orthodox men extra susceptible to sexual temptation during holidays? Why would women walking down the street, in broad daylight, not excite them to sin on some days, but do so on others?

    Extremist forms of religions all seem to 1) view their men as sex maniacs and 2) blame the women for that state.

    I notice that they don’t require the men to stay inside during those hours, or blindfold themselves and utilize guide dogs if they are so weak.

    The orthodox have every right to worship and live as they see fit. I just don’t agree with this form of Judaism.

  4. RELIGION, n. A daughter of Hope and Fear, explaining to Ignorance the nature of the Unknowable.

  5. I am a religious Zionist MOT and I strongly oppose (even hate) these clowns and their ayatollah antics–they do NOT represent Jews, Israel, me, or anything other than their own primitive 16th century beliefs, and their crude anti-social behavior should not be tolerated by Israel, or any other country, government, or society whatsoever. They are allowed in Israel only because Israel’s intricately convoluted and unwieldy political coalition system of parliamentary government needs their bloc unison votes. Too bad !!! דמד

  6. So would they object to a transsexual if he could prove he wasn’t a female walking thru?

  7. In the Muddle East humans wear all sorts of things on top of their heads. The hats that these guys wear are as goofy as the tents on the heads of the Saudis.

    1. Or the backwards baseball hats for the doofus look in the USA. Kaffiya have a use to protect head from sun. In the USA we use T-shirts for the same effect. The other has I’m sure some religious significance. Backwards base ball hats indicates the eight word vocabulary and sentences ending in a question mark of the proto-typical California doofus. Did you know in Argentina there are Gaucho’s with earlocks? When they were taking in refugees from Europe it was not all German and Italian fascists but also Jewish refugees. The Argentines assigned immigrants to where they were needed doing what needed doing . Instant full employment. A group of orthodox Jews showed up and were sent to be Gauchos. They mentioned they had never ridden horses. “easy fall off get on fall off get on fall off get on …pretty soon learn not to fall off.” Compliments of a Frank Zappa education.

    2. Hey, Liberal Bias–no snide remarks about the “funny” hats or skull caps worn by Catholic priests, around the globe? How about those “hysterical” outfits worn by nuns, still engulfed in those archaic floor length garments? Any comments to make about those “outrageous” and “bizarre” getups worn by the Amish? What about the long beards that the Greek Orthodox priests seem to adore, not to mention their ensembles? Those are a riot! Tell me–do you mock the unique clothing and the customs or all with whom you do not share a common bond or do you save your nasty, rude and snide comments for those who are religious Jews? The hats worn by certain religious Jews are symbols of their religious devotion and are separate from the issue discussed in this article. While you may not agree with the attempt, by a small segment of religious Jews, who wish to separate the sexes in public places, is that any reason to ridicule their choice of clothing? Does a discussion about pedophile priests elicit comments about their clothing or the clothing worn by the bishops and cardinals? Yeah. Didn’t think so.

  8. It’s curious that ultra-religious men are unable to resist sexual temptation that everybody else is easily able to control. What chemical imbalance might produce both uncontrolled libido and ultra-religious behavior?

    1. Ohhh, That’s why there is no rape in the “everybody else” club. Live in a glass house do you?

      1. Well there are certainly a lot of predatory priests. It may be related to the misogynist nature of organized religion.

  9. “The posters ask women in an ultra-Orthodox Jerusalem neighborhood to avoid the main street during the intermediate days of the religious holiday of Sukkot.”

    Looking at the bigger picture, these radicals are trending in the right direction. They might be trying to carve out safe spaces for the women; at least they are asking. In the U.S., we’re trending in the other direction.

  10. The more these idiots rant and rave, discriminate, etc the more they recede further into their nonsense. They are the biggest enemy of their own religion. Eventually they will be used as ‘jesters’ of a sort and no one will remember why they wear the curly fries and other costumes. It will stand as nonsense to amuse and warn.

  11. I think the posters are covered under free speech – the women don’t have to fall in line — or do they? Are they harassed if they don’t use the side streets?

    The militant Zionist faction is not confined to Israel. Look at the speakers banned on college campuses who wish to talk about the plight of Palestine. Or the attempt to stop the BDS (boycott, divestment, sanctions) movement against Israel.

    We need to worry about free speech in the US – even librarians are under attack:

  12. When you are in Amsterdam go to the Red Light District. You will see the male dorks from towns like this who travel to Amsterdam for a reason. They take off their dork hats and attend the cathouses with passion. The women on duty call these guys the ultra dorks with small dongs.

  13. A woman sat on a bus in Israel. A group of Rabbis entered the bus and ordered the woman to vacate the seat for them, ordering her to the back of the bus. She refused, and the Rabbis beat her into submission for her sin (Google search yourself).

    Orthodox Judaic male daily prayer: “Thank you _od you did not make me a slave, nor a gentile, nor a woman.”

    Ex-US Attorney Micheal Chertoff wrongly convicted the late OH Congressman James Trafficant (to punish him for his anti-Israel stance) w/perjured testimony. Israeli-agent Bush awarded MC by making him Homeland Security Chief. Chertoff is a member of Chabad Lubavitch, among the most caustic and bigoted branches of Orthodox Judaism.

  14. Meanwhile, back at the ranch, the US funds and equips terrorist in Syria, who kill innocent people indiscriminately.

  15. Another major difference. In Syria or Iraq and especially in Iran they would be killed and not just a bullet in the back of the head but in the most barbaric ways possible.

    I visited the area of the Temple Mount. there are views of the various churches and the ultras were there hissing at us to get away. The guide laughed at them and being sabra said ‘THAT is our cross to bear.”

    We have the same in the USA in both the religious and secular versions. that is our cross to bear.

    The difference is our guide stood guard at nights in a sandbagged fortified house protecting that particular area, the Temple Mount. If I was asked to don a uniform again to protect some site or rite important to the progressives I would laugh and say “I’m not my brothers keep and I refuse to die for them.”

    You see the Sabras understood they were to protect that area and people from all comers. I understood but didn’t feel the one group in my country was worth the risk. I was no longer in uniform and under orders and in the service of…..not the people, not the country….our oath was to the Constitution…and nothing else. If not for being under orders with an intact Constitution I wouldn’t think twice about not defending those who work to destroy that to which I am still loyal.

    Small aside. Free speech in Israel may be defined differently. Try Google and look it up. In the USA it’s now a commodity to be bought and sold as per the “Money is Free Speech” Law. Not many complained etc. when they witnessed the conservative Supreme Court 5-4 establish that ‘new’ right even though it violated a number of the original rights.

    The proponents argument is “I have the right without explanation to all of your rights without exception

    They won we lost. Free speech up to but not including direct access (big deal they use a PAC or a bagman) is not a very costly item. I felt safer in Israel. What was I doing there? I’m not of the Jewish religion. No….that country protects the rights of freedom of worship for all except that one which intends to kill them …but as for free speech…it’s different in every country.

    So think about the Constitution and beyond that to rights not granted down to your local level. Making money free speech and therefore speech a commodity violated how many of your former rights? Don’t worry about Israel. Worry about this country.

  16. Pretty fair request, me think! If we are allowing this extremist sect of judaism to take hostage all of the country and discriminate against Arabs, christian, secular Jews and women, why not allow them to determine when and where women can and should walk?

    1. Given the lack of the most basic of freedoms for women, unlucky enough to find themselves stranded in predominantly Muslim countries, it’s always fascinating to see our resident Muslim comment about a tiny, isolated segment of the religious population in Israel, wishing to separate the sexes. Meanwhile, women are burned alive, stoned, beaten, raped and tortured in Muslim countries, for the most innocent of transgressions, but you will never hear that from Po. Wonders never cease.

      1. How blind or hypocritical are you, bambam, to one one minute make the distinction between this specific sect of Judaism and go out of your way to exculpate the whole from the fringe to, the next do the same thing against Muslims????
        Are you serious?
        Is this the same religion that spurs men to offer blessings that they are not women?

        1. I’d say that the moron, who purposely ignores the wholesale murder, rape and general mistreatment of those doomed to living in Muslim hell holes, has no standing to criticize the beliefs of those who pose no danger to others. Your lunatic brethren are blowing up people around the globe, spreading terror wherever they land. This was, if you bothered to read the article, a simple request. It wasn’t law. In Muslim countries, however, these farfetched ideas are, instead, codified laws, where homosexuals are thrown from rooftops and women are kidnapped, raped and murdered, just to name a few. The atrocities are unending, yet you foam at the mouth about a small group wishing to separate the sexes for a specific holiday. Talk about blind and hypocritical. This is, in no way, condoning the ideas of this faction, but you get excited about things which pale in comparison to the actions prevalent throughout the barbaric and inhumane Muslim world. Same old Po. He escapes his Muslim hell hole of a country, to live in the West, yet not a word about the atrocities, committed on a daily basis, by his Muslim brethren. It must be nice to be so blind.

          1. You are lying again, bambam… as usual… which countries, muslim countries have codified laws that demand the throwing of gays off roofs……or women are kidnapped, raped and murdered? I am waiting.

            The facts are stll that among the safest countries on earth, we generally find muslim societies.
            And, certainly, of our holy books only one makes women and men equal before the eyes of God. Only one makes all human beings equal before God, only one urges forgiveness above an eye for an eye…And only one of those two faiths collects the saying of its prophet saying that the path to heaven is under the mother’s feet.

            1. Usually, after they have been removed from her body, in the town square, for the commission of some perceived wrong to Allah, who commands that infidels be killed, wherever they are to be found. Your lies fall on deaf ears, as yours is a religion of barbarians.

              1. Said the barbarian who prevents women from worshiping at the wall, who photoshops women from billboards, who cropped out Hillary Clinton from the situation room and who demands women stay out of men’s way lest their impurity be seen.
                Where did Allah demand infidels be killed? I am waiting for your source. Otherwise we all agree you are, as previously established, a liar.

                1. Being called a liar, by one who worships the pedophile Mohammed and his crazed version of a God, named Allah, is the greatest of honors. If you viewed life as I do, I’d be terrified. Aren’t there some infidels that you should be raping and beheading? Time is a wastin’.

                  1. Do you know what Ashura is, Bambam? That is the muslim holiday when we fast to celebrate… the day the Israelites were freed from Pharoah…yes, Muslims fast on Passover. Why? Because that same prophet Muhamad you disrespect is the same prophet Muhamad who told us that Muslims too have a claim to Moses.
                    And yes, it is that same Muhamad to whom was revealed a book that makes believing in the torah and believing in all the Jewish prophets a requirement of faith. And it is why, I, a muslim, know more about and respect more your prophets than you yourself do.
                    And it is why I would not call any of them disparaging names, for you don’t deserve them…and I do.

                    1. Try your smokescreen on some other unsuspecting and gullible infidel, who buys that bs about Islam being a religion of peace and sanity. This proud and determined infidel will have none of your lies and falsehoods, but, unfortunately, Europe is now circling the drain because its demented leaders fell for such blatant lies. The world has awakened to the horror that is Islam, and, hopefully, it’s not too late. Europe is dreading its decision to open the floodgates to these marauding intruders, and, rightfully so. Your brethren, under the guise of needing protection and safety, are swiftly turning European communities into dangerous and bleak societies, where women and children can no longer safely walk the streets out of fear of being raped and assaulted by your gracious and religious adherents to the Religion of Peace. Yes, it’s all a figment of my imagination. Europe only wishes that were true.

                    2. Speaking of imagination, bambam, you are going over board here. Calling our Christian brothers and sisters from Syria rapists and beheaders is pretty low, even for you.
                      As for islam, it is, perhaps, worth remembering that when the US rejected boatloads of Jewish refugees, the king of Morocco saved them.

                      In 1930 Albania, a small Balkan country, had a mere 803,000 citizens of which two hundred were Jewish. In 1943 the Nazis occupied Albania and in an unprecedented act of defiance the Albanian people refused to handover its Jewish residents. Instead various government agencies gave Jewish families fake documentation and Jewish refugees from Europe were given sanctuary (even while under Italian rule).

                      At a time when the European nations were sending their Jews to the gas chambers; Albania, the only European country with a Muslim majority, not only saved its Jewish residents – but absorbed so many European refugees that the Jewish population grew a staggering 900% during the war.

                      Throughout World War II a small number of Turkish diplomats (such as Necdet Kent, Namık Kemal Yolga, Selahattin Ülkümen and Behiç Erkin) risked everything to save the lives of 35,000 European Jews from the Nazi genocide. They were able to save so many Jews by leveraging Turkey’s neutral stance to pressure the Nazis into sparing the lives of Turkish Jews residing in Europe, while simultaneously granting thousands of European Jews fleeing the Nazi genocide refuge in Turkey

                      It is no understatement that these diplomats risked everything, on July 19 1944, the Gestapo ordered that all of the Jews on island of Rhodes report for deportation, Selahattin Ülkümen, the Turkish Consul General, instructed the Nazis that Turkey was neutral in the war and demanded they release every Turkish Jew and out of fear of causing an international incident the Nazis complied. Ülkümen’s actions saved the lives of 42 Jewish families, who were quickly evacuated from the island. In response to this humiliation the Nazis bombed the Turkish Consulate building, killing his pregnant wife. A few days later Ülkümen was deported by the Nazis to Piraeus, where he spent the remainder of the war in jail.

                      When the Nazis came for the Iranian Jews living in France, Abdol Hossein Sardari, the Iranian Consul for Paris, used his position and influence to save the lives of the Iranian Jews in France. He fabricated a story that Iranian Jews were not ‘real’ Jews, but Persians who’d accepted the teachings of Moses centuries earlier and therefore not subject to Nazi racial law. After months of intense debate by German racial scientists he’d convinced everyone but Eichmann who simply declared Sardari’s claim was “the usual Jewish trick”.

                      However, the delay had given Sardari the one thing he desperately needed – time. While the experts were debating in Berlin, he issued as many passports and travel documents as he could to both Iranian and non-Iranian Jews.

                      When Iran signed a peace treaty with the Allies, Sardari was ordered home by his superiors, an order he did not follow. Stripped of his diplomatic immunity and status, he risked his life by remaining in France to save Jews, which he financed with his personal inheritance. By the end of the war as many as 2,000 Jews owed their life to him.

                    3. As this learned man states, in the Jewish Chronicle no less: Without Islam, judaism would no longer be around. You are welcome, bam, you are welcome…and please don’t mention it…
                      So, what did the Muslims do for the Jews?
                      The JC Essay

                      By David J Wasserstein, May 24, 2012
                      Islam saved Jewry. This is an unpopular, discomforting claim in the modern world. But it is a historical truth. The argument for it is double. First, in 570 CE, when the Prophet Mohammad was born, the Jews and Judaism were on the way to oblivion. And second, the coming of Islam saved them, providing a new context in which they not only survived, but flourished, laying foundations for subsequent Jewish cultural prosperity – also in Christendom – through the medieval period into the modern world.
                      By the fourth century, Christianity had become the dominant religion in the Roman empire. One aspect of this success was opposition to rival faiths, including Judaism, along with massive conversion of members of such faiths, sometimes by force, to Christianity. Much of our testimony about Jewish existence in the Roman empire from this time on consists of accounts of conversions.
                      Great and permanent reductions in numbers through conversion, between the fourth and the seventh centuries, brought with them a gradual but relentless whittling away of the status, rights, social and economic existence, and religious and cultural life of Jews all over the Roman empire.
                      A long series of enactments deprived Jewish people of their rights as citizens, prevented them from fulfilling their religious obligations, and excluded them from the society of their fellows.
                      This went along with the centuries-long military and political struggle with Persia. As a tiny element in the Christian world, the Jews should not have been affected much by this broad, political issue. Yet it affected them critically, because the Persian empire at this time included Babylon – now Iraq – at the time home to the world’s greatest concentration of Jews.
                      Had Islam not come along, Jewry in the west would have declined to disappearance and Jewry in the east would have become just another oriental cult
                      Here also were the greatest centres of Jewish intellectual life. The most important single work of Jewish cultural creativity in over 3,000 years, apart from the Bible itself – the Talmud – came into being in Babylon. The struggle between Persia and Byzantium, in our period, led increasingly to a separation between Jews under Byzantine, Christian rule and Jews under Persian rule.
                      Beyond all this, the Jews who lived under Christian rule seemed to have lost the knowledge of their own culturally specific languages – Hebrew and Aramaic – and to have taken on the use of Latin or Greek or other non-Jewish, local, languages. This in turn must have meant that they also lost access to the central literary works of Jewish culture – the Torah, Mishnah, poetry, midrash, even liturgy.
                      The loss of the unifying force represented by language – and of the associated literature – was a major step towards assimilation and disappearance. In these circumstances, with contact with the one place where Jewish cultural life continued to prosper – Babylon – cut off by conflict with Persia, Jewish life in the Christian world of late antiquity was not simply a pale shadow of what it had been three or four centuries earlier. It was doomed.
                      Had Islam not come along, the conflict with Persia would have continued. The separation between western Judaism, that of Christendom, and Babylonian Judaism, that of Mesopotamia, would have intensified. Jewry in the west would have declined to disappearance in many areas. And Jewry in the east would have become just another oriental cult.
                      But this was all prevented by the rise of Islam. The Islamic conquests of the seventh century changed the world, and did so with dramatic, wide-ranging and permanent effect for the Jews.
                      Within a century of the death of Mohammad, in 632, Muslim armies had conquered almost the whole of the world where Jews lived, from Spain eastward across North Africa and the Middle East as far as the eastern frontier of Iran and beyond. Almost all the Jews in the world were now ruled by Islam. This new situation transformed Jewish existence. Their fortunes changed in legal, demographic, social, religious, political, geographical, economic, linguistic and cultural terms – all for the better.
                      First, things improved politically. Almost everywhere in Christendom where Jews had lived now formed part of the same political space as Babylon – Cordoba and Basra lay in the same political world. The old frontier between the vital centre in Babylonia and the Jews of the Mediterranean basin was swept away, forever.
                      Political change was partnered by change in the legal status of the Jewish population: although it is not always clear what happened during the Muslim conquests, one thing is certain. The result of the conquests was, by and large, to make the Jews second-class citizens.
                      This should not be misunderstood: to be a second-class citizen was a far better thing to be than not to be a citizen at all. For most of these Jews, second-class citizenship represented a major advance. In Visigothic Spain, for example, shortly before the Muslim conquest in 711, the Jews had seen their children removed from them and forcibly converted to Christianity and had themselves been enslaved.
                      In the developing Islamic societies of the classical and medieval periods, being a Jew meant belonging to a category defined under law, enjoying certain rights and protections, alongside various obligations. These rights and protections were not as extensive or as generous as those enjoyed by Muslims, and the obligations were greater but, for the first few centuries, the Muslims themselves were a minority, and the practical differences were not all that great.
                      Along with legal near-equality came social and economic equality. Jews were not confined to ghettos, either literally or in terms of economic activity. The societies of Islam were, in effect, open societies. In religious terms, too, Jews enjoyed virtually full freedom. They might not build many new synagogues – in theory – and they might not make too public their profession of their faith, but there was no really significant restriction on the practice of their religion. Along with internal legal autonomy, they also enjoyed formal representation, through leaders of their own, before the authorities of the state. Imperfect and often not quite as rosy as this might sound, it was at least the broad norm.
                      The political unity brought by the new Islamic world-empire did not last, but it created a vast Islamic world civilisation, similar to the older Christian civilisation that it replaced. Within this huge area, Jews lived and enjoyed broadly similar status and rights everywhere. They could move around, maintain contacts, and develop their identity as Jews. A great new expansion of trade from the ninth century onwards brought the Spanish Jews – like the Muslims – into touch with the Jews and the Muslims even of India.
                      A ll this was encouraged by a further, critical development. Huge numbers of people in the new world of Islam adopted the language of the Muslim Arabs. Arabic gradually became the principal language of this vast area, excluding almost all the rest: Greek and Syriac, Aramaic and Coptic and Latin all died out, replaced by Arabic. Persian, too, went into a long retreat, to reappear later heavily influenced by Arabic.
                      The Jews moved over to Arabic very rapidly. By the early 10th century, only 300 years after the conquests, Sa’adya Gaon was translating the Bible into Arabic. Bible translation is a massive task – it is not undertaken unless there is a need for it. By about the year 900, the Jews had largely abandoned other languages and taken on Arabic.
                      The change of language in its turn brought the Jews into direct contact with broader cultural developments. The result from the 10th century on was a striking pairing of two cultures. The Jews of the Islamic world developed an entirely new culture, which differed from their culture before Islam in terms of language, cultural forms, influences, and uses. Instead of being concerned primarily with religion, the new Jewish culture of the Islamic world, like that of its neighbours, mixed the religious and the secular to a high degree. The contrast, both with the past and with medieval Christian Europe, was enormous.
                      Like their neighbours, these Jews wrote in Arabic in part, and in a Jewish form of that language. The use of Arabic brought them close to the Arabs. But the use of a specific Jewish form of that language maintained the barriers between Jew and Muslim. The subjects that Jews wrote about, and the literary forms in which they wrote about them, were largely new ones, borrowed from the Muslims and developed in tandem with developments in Arabic Islam.
                      Also at this time, Hebrew was revived as a language of high literature, parallel to the use among the Muslims of a high form of Arabic for similar purposes. Along with its use for poetry and artistic prose, secular writing of all forms in Hebrew and in (Judeo-)Arabic came into being, some of it of high quality.
                      Much of the greatest poetry in Hebrew written since the Bible comes from this period. Sa’adya Gaon, Solomon Ibn Gabirol, Ibn Ezra (Moses and Abraham), Maimonides, Yehuda Halevi, Yehudah al-Harizi, Samuel ha-Nagid, and many more – all of these names, well known today, belong in the first rank of Jewish literary and cultural endeavour.
                      W here did these Jews produce all this? When did they and their neighbours achieve this symbiosis, this mode of living together? The Jews did it in a number of centres of excellence. The most outstanding of these was Islamic Spain, where there was a true Jewish Golden Age, alongside a wave of cultural achievement among the Muslim population. The Spanish case illustrates a more general pattern, too.
                      What happened in Islamic Spain – waves of Jewish cultural prosperity paralleling waves of cultural prosperity among the Muslims – exemplifies a larger pattern in Arab Islam. In Baghdad, between the ninth and the twelfth centuries; in Qayrawan (in north Africa), between the ninth and the 11th centuries; in Cairo, between the 10th and the 12th centuries, and elsewhere, the rise and fall of cultural centres of Islam tended to be reflected in the rise and fall of Jewish cultural activity in the same places.
                      This was not coincidence, and nor was it the product of particularly enlightened liberal patronage by Muslim rulers. It was the product of a number of deeper features of these societies, social and cultural, legal and economic, linguistic and political, which together enabled and indeed encouraged the Jews of the Islamic world to create a novel sub-culture within the high civilisation of the time.
                      This did not last for ever; the period of culturally successful symbiosis between Jew and Arab Muslim in the middle ages came to a close by about 1300. In reality, it had reached this point even earlier, with the overall relative decline in the importance and vitality of Arabic culture, both in relation to western European cultures and in relation to other cultural forms within Islam itself; Persian and Turkish.
                      Jewish cultural prosperity in the middle ages operated in large part as a function of Muslim, Arabic cultural (and to some degree political) prosperity: when Muslim Arabic culture thrived, so did that of the Jews; when Muslim Arabic culture declined, so did that of the Jews.
                      In the case of the Jews, however, the cultural capital thus created also served as the seed-bed of further growth elsewhere – in Christian Spain and in the Christian world more generally.
                      The Islamic world was not the only source of inspiration for the Jewish cultural revival that came later in Christian Europe, but it certainly was a major contributor to that development. Its significance cannot be overestimated.
                      David J Wasserstein is the Eugene Greener Jr Professor of Jewish Studies at Vanderbilt University. This article is adapted from last week’s Jordan Lectures in Comparative Religion at the School of Oriental and African Studies.

  17. After all, why aren’t such posters covered under free speech. Do the Israelis have a first amendment?

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