Maryland Removes Statue Of Roger B. Taney In Midnight Operation: Will Other Supreme Court Justice Monuments Follow?

Roger_B._Taney_statue,_Mount_Vernon_Place,_Baltimore,_MDWithout much notice or debate, Maryland officials ordered the removal of the statue of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney due to his authorship of the Dredd Scott decision.  At midnight, workers quietly dismantled the statue in response to the violence in Charlottesville.  Taney’s statue stood for 145 years on the Maryland State House and his removal follows calls for the removal of statues not simply of confederate figures but founders like George Washington and others associated with either slavery or segregation.  I have cautioned against the wholesale removal of historical images and monuments and names at universities.  The flaws and failures of historical figures are often as more important than their triumphs.  The Taney removal reflects a widening array of figures who are now subject  to call for removal — beyond confederate statuary.   It is not clear what Maryland will do with the US Coast Guard Cutter Taney which currently is part of the Baltimore Maritime Museum.  It is last surviving active ship from the Pearl Harbor attack of December 7, 1941.  I have spent nights on the Taney with the Cub Scouts. While this is not on state lands, it is not clear if there will also be a demand that the ship be removed given its namesake or how far this movement to remove historical references will do.

Taney’s decision in Dredd Scott remains as one of the lowest moments for the Supreme Court and for the country.  Taney’s infamous words in the opinion capture the chilling racism and inhumanity of the time. Taney stated that the rights of African Americans had to be based on the original intent of the Constitution but that the framers believed that blacks “had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could be made by it.”

440px-Roger_B._Taney_-_Brady-HandyTaney was wrong on the law and on the wrong side of history.  He was a Jacksonian Democrat from Maryland who freed the slaves inherited from his father and gave pensions to some of them.  He served as Attorney General and Secretary of the Treasury.  When the Civil War began, he stayed with the North and continued to serve on the Supreme Court.   He also joined in Justice Joseph Story’s magnificent decision in favor of the slaves who took over the Spanish schooner Amistad.  Yet he also referred to “Northern aggression” in the war and appeared to remain a supporter of slavery. Ironically, he died on the day that Maryland abolished slavery near the end of the war.

Taney had a narrow view of federal authority and judicial power.  That was reflected in one of his more famous decisions in Luther v. Borden where he articulated a dividing line between between political questions and justiciable ones: “the powers given to the courts by the Constitution are judicial powers and extend to those subject, only, which are judicial in character, and not to those which are political.”

Taney’s decision in Ex parte Merryman, 17 F. Cas. 144 (C.C.D. Md. 1861), remains one of the most important decisions in history limiting the power of presidents and defending the the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus under the Constitution’s Suspension Clause. In the Dredd Scott decision, Taney ruled with nine other justices that Congress had no authority to restrict the spread of slavery into federal territories and that the 1820 Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.

Taney’s decision in Dredd Scott warrants condemnation.  However, the dismantling of the Taney statue indicates that the scope of the current movement for statuary removals is broader than just confederate statues.  We have seen demands for the removal of Columbus statues and other historical figures.  As I mentioned recently, what concerns me is the lack of any public debate over calls for the removal of memorials and others (like Justices).  There are a host of justices who wrote terrible decisions that denied rights to others.  For example, Tenth Circuit Courthouse is named after Byron White who authored the opinion in Bowers v. Hardwich, upholding laws criminalizing homosexuality.   Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote in Buck v. Bell in favor of forced sterilization of those with intellectual disabilities. He said “society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind” and ended the opinion by declaring that “three generations of imbeciles are enough.”

It is not clear if other names and statues like Holmes’ or Whites or others will also be removed or what standard will be applied in such cases.  From abortion to gay rights to internments, there are an array of opinions that are shock our conscience.  Yet, eight other justices signed on to Buck and seven signed off on Scott.  Likewise, as discussed in my recent column, there is a movement to strip away Woodrow Wilson’s name from Princeton University due to his support for segregation.    There are good faith objections to some of these figures but there is currently no clear standard for which statues are to be removed. Indeed, the majority of polled citizens do not favor even the removal of the confederate statues.  This would seem an ideal time for hearings in Congress and other forums to discuss how we should treat historical figures.  One alternative to dismantling statues is to add additional statuary or, as will be done at the Jefferson memorial, add information on slave holding.

What do you think?

240 thoughts on “Maryland Removes Statue Of Roger B. Taney In Midnight Operation: Will Other Supreme Court Justice Monuments Follow?

  1. Monuments in public places should cause reflection and inspire present Americans to better themselves and their country.

    Honoring traitors who literally fought against the United States is laughable and pathetic.

    The argument equating Confederate monuments with those of Washington and Jefferson is garbage as well. The former sought to destroy in order to save slavery, while the latter labored to build the country: in spite of having immoral and unforgivable flaws themselves: a distinction with a difference.

    The Confederacy attempted to become its own history; it is not American history in the same vein. So such statues belong in museums at best, not in today’s public areas — especially when there are countless Americans who impacted our country for the better, who are without recognition.

    I’d rather see a statue of an American soldier who died last week, last month, last year, or in the last decade become fixed in a public space than continue with a an undeserving monument of Davis or Lee, et al. Ask yourself who really deserves the space.

    I mean, priorities.

    • Dave137 wrote: “I’d rather see a statue of an American soldier who died last week, last month, last year, or in the last decade become fixed in a public space than continue with a an undeserving monument of Davis or Lee, et al. Ask yourself who really deserves the space.

      “I mean, priorities.”

      Hear, hear, Dave137.

      https://www.democracynow.org/2017/6/1/former_naacp_head_ben_jealous_enters

      AMY GOODMAN: I want to ask you about the murder of Richard Collins III earlier this month. Just a few days before his graduation, Collins, a black student, Army lieutenant, at Bowie State University in Maryland, was visiting the nearby University of Maryland at College Park when he was stabbed at a bus stop near campus by Sean Urbanski, a white student who was a senior there. Though investigators have not yet determined whether the killing was a hate crime, Urbanski was a member of a now-deleted Facebook group called “Alt-Reich: Nation,” which published white supremacist content.

      BEN JEALOUS: I sat there amongst the students at Bowie State, students from Bowie State and from College Park, from the surrounding community, all grieving. They should have been at the highest moment of their lives, as they or their friends were graduating from college, but the actions of this killer, this deranged, hate-infused killer, had brought us all to the lowest of lows. And I was inspired by them and their resilience and their hope and their love and their ability to come together across all the lines of race and religion, that we’re told in our society again and again are so important, as if they don’t matter a thing, just by their love for each other and their determination to build a better future. And I saw it again with Richard Collins’ family when I sat a few aisles over from them at their son’s funeral—again, a family really grounded in love of God and country and family, resiliently and defiantly saying that they were going to be like Dr. King and choose love over hatred, because hatred was too much of a burden to bear.

      Richard Collins was a beautiful young man who truly dedicated his life to serving others, who was cut down on a college campus just a couple of days after he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in our Army. One of the most beautiful things that was said at his funeral was by an administrator at Bowie State who said that he hoped that there would be a medal ribbon for a young man who had waged a war against hate, because, you see, when this young man with this knife approached Richard and told him to get out of the way, so clearly menacingly full of hate, Richard said no, that he—and it was that refusing to allow himself or his friends to be degraded and humiliated, because of their color or the color of their friends, that ultimately cost him his life. Our young men have too much to worry about to have to worry about this, too. And we’ve had two white young men in Maryland in the last six months or so kill black men apparently because of their race, once in New York City, once here in Maryland.

      It’s time for our leaders in the state to go even further. We’ve got to really admit that when it comes to the issue of hatred and tension, ethnic tension, there is nothing different about our state—you know, there’s nothing here that either exists or doesn’t exist that’s not in the rest of the country. We have all of the problems. We are a microcosm of this country. But what makes us different, especially among states south of the Mason-Dixon, is that we’ve shown our ability to come together courageously on issues of civil rights. We had one year here, Amy, where we abolished the death penalty, passed marriage equality, passed the DREAM Act and expanded voting rights, even as our neighbors were suppressing them. And it’s time for us to have a governor to really lead our state in doing that again. And that’s where I think, you know, Hogan could do more. I was glad that he spoke out, but he is not showing real leadership to pull us together to have the tough conversations, to really challenge people—many of them in his own party—to evolve, to move on, to open their hearts, to follow the examples of George Wallace, of Robert Byrd, of so many other people, once filled with hate, who learned how to love. It’s time for us in Maryland to really come together.

  2. Always, ALWAYS, when change is necessary, the pendulum swings too far the other way., There are always over-corrections. The Dredd Scott decision is an appalling blot on our nation and the USSC, but really only in terms of today’s social mores and social understanding (Trump to the contrary notwithstanding). The moronic notion of “Who’s next? Washington? Jefferson?” does nothing to advance the issue and plays into the hands of crazy people.

    Robert E. Lee and other Confederates were literally traitors to their country. If they did today what they did then they would have been prosecuted for treason and imprisoned for life. Nearly 3/4 of a century after this nation was founded, they seceded from the Union because they wanted to continue to keep virtually free slave labor for their plantations; despite protests to the contrary, it was ALL about perpetuating slavery. Neither Washington nor Jefferson advocated for the continuation of slavery though they continued to exploit it – so they were not perfect either. But, unlike the confederate secessionists, these slave owners also happened to have created this nation.

    As for Taney, he too was a product of his time and his social environment. So, no, I don’t think his statute should come down as I don’t think of him anywhere near the category of the Confederates. He interpreted the Constitution poorly, but that does not make him a traitor.

    • Why was the Dred Scott decision an appalling blot??? SCOTUS’s role is to interpret laws, not make laws. And clearly at that time, slavery was a legal institution, and one sanctioned in the Constitution. It would be as if actual Fascists took over in this country, and in an effort to shut down the media, took a case to SCOTUS to overturn the First Amendment. Should SCOTUS then be activist, and declare something illegal that is clearly in the Constitution.

      I applaud Taney, and his refusal to give in to judicial activism way back in the day. INHO, only cowards and idiotic sheep would find the decision wrong.

      Squeeky Fromm
      Girl Reporter

      • I applaud Taney, and his refusal to give in to judicial activism way back in the day.

        See Robert Bork on Taney. Taney exemplified judicial activism. The import of the Dred Scott decision was that states were debarred from prohibiting slavery within their borders.

  3. From all I’ve read, the Dred Scott decision fully comported with the Constitution as written at the time. (Look it up with politically correct blinders.) The 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments served to nullify that decision, and rightly so. And that’s the way it should have been done. Taney and his fellow justices should be commended–not condemned–for their having adhered to the Constitution, a rarity in US supreme court history.

  4. https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/md-politics/md-senate-presid…statue/2017/08/17/41833b12-8390-11e7-ab27-1a21a8e006ab_story.html

    “Maryland placed the Taney statue on the lawn of the capitol complex in 1872. Since then, it has added interpretive plaques explaining the Dred Scott opinion and erected a statue of Thurgood Marshall, a Baltimore native who was the first African American Supreme Court justice, on the opposite side of the State House. The trust agreed last year to erect statues in the State House honoring abolitionists Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass.

    “Benjamin Jealous, the former NAACP president who is seeking the Democratic nomination to challenge Hogan in 2018, says he would push to take down all Confederate statues in the state if he is elected.“There’s no room for symbols of hate in our state,” he said.”

    • “Benjamin Jealous, the former NAACP president who is seeking the Democratic nomination to challenge Hogan in 2018, says he would push to take down all Confederate statues in the state if he is elected.“There’s no room for symbols of hate in our state,” he said.”

      Jealous is 44 years old and has been a non-profit-sector functionary all his life. He ran the NAACP, a completely unserious organization. He didn’t run a hospital or some other concern with operational measures of competence. The reason he’s running for Governor is that he’s too arrogant to realize he’s unqualified to run anything.

    • I was not aware of the Thurgood Marshall statue. Apparently, neither was any of the people seeking to remove the Taney statue.

    • Ben Jealous said, “Just a few days before his graduation, Collins, a black student, Army lieutenant, at Bowie State University in Maryland, was visiting the nearby University of Maryland at College Park when he was stabbed at a bus stop near campus by Sean Urbanski, a white student who was a senior there. Though investigators have not yet determined whether the killing was a hate crime, Urbanski was a member of a now-deleted Facebook group called “Alt-Reich: Nation,” which published white supremacist content.”

      https://www.democracynow.org/2017/6/1/former_naacp_head_ben_jealous_enters

      On Wednesday, just after former NAACP President Ben Jealous announced he’s officially entering the race for governor in Maryland, I sat down and interviewed him.

      AMY GOODMAN: I want to ask you about the murder of Richard Collins III earlier this month. Just a few days before his graduation, Collins, a black student, Army lieutenant, at Bowie State University in Maryland, was visiting the nearby University of Maryland at College Park when he was stabbed at a bus stop near campus by Sean Urbanski, a white student who was a senior there. Though investigators have not yet determined whether the killing was a hate crime, Urbanski was a member of a now-deleted Facebook group called “Alt-Reich: Nation,” which published white supremacist content. I wanted to ask you about this, something that the man you’ll be running against, Republican Governor Larry Hogan, who hopes to be the second Republican governor to win a second term since the 1950s—he condemned this on his Facebook page. I wanted to ask you about his response, how you would respond differently, especially in light of—you were one of the leading voices in the country when it came to the murder of Trayvon Martin by the white vigilante, George Zimmerman.

      BENJAMIN JEALOUS: You know, I commend Governor Hogan for speaking up and speaking out. He, quite frankly, was one of the few in our state who did. There were many folks that day who oddly—leaders in our state—commented about Manchester and didn’t comment about College Park. And I appreciate him for doing that.

      I sat there amongst the students at Bowie State, students from Bowie State and from College Park, from the surrounding community, all grieving. They should have been at the highest moment of their lives, as they or their friends were graduating from college, but the actions of this killer, this deranged, hate-infused killer, had brought us all to the lowest of lows. And I was inspired by them and their resilience and their hope and their love and their ability to come together across all the lines of race and religion, that we’re told in our society again and again are so important, as if they don’t matter a thing, just by their love for each other and their determination to build a better future. And I saw it again with Richard Collins’ family when I sat a few aisles over from them at their son’s funeral—again, a family really grounded in love of God and country and family, resiliently and defiantly saying that they were going to be like Dr. King and choose love over hatred, because hatred was too much of a burden to bear.

      Richard Collins was a beautiful young man who truly dedicated his life to serving others, who was cut down on a college campus just a couple of days after he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in our Army. One of the most beautiful things that was said at his funeral was by an administrator at Bowie State who said that he hoped that there would be a medal ribbon for a young man who had waged a war against hate, because, you see, when this young man with this knife approached Richard and told him to get out of the way, so clearly menacingly full of hate, Richard said no, that he—and it was that refusing to allow himself or his friends to be degraded and humiliated, because of their color or the color of their friends, that ultimately cost him his life. Our young men have too much to worry about to have to worry about this, too. And we’ve had two white young men in Maryland in the last six months or so kill black men apparently because of their race, once in New York City, once here in Maryland.

      It’s time for our leaders in the state to go even further. We’ve got to really admit that when it comes to the issue of hatred and tension, ethnic tension, there is nothing different about our state—you know, there’s nothing here that either exists or doesn’t exist that’s not in the rest of the country. We have all of the problems. We are a microcosm of this country. But what makes us different, especially among states south of the Mason-Dixon, is that we’ve shown our ability to come together courageously on issues of civil rights. We had one year here, Amy, where we abolished the death penalty, passed marriage equality, passed the DREAM Act and expanded voting rights, even as our neighbors were suppressing them. And it’s time for us to have a governor to really lead our state in doing that again. And that’s where I think, you know, Hogan could do more. I was glad that he spoke out, but he is not showing real leadership to pull us together to have the tough conversations, to really challenge people—many of them in his own party—to evolve, to move on, to open their hearts, to follow the examples of George Wallace, of Robert Byrd, of so many other people, once filled with hate, who learned how to love. It’s time for us in Maryland to really come together.

  5. “After Massive Boston Protest, White Nationalists & Right-Wing Groups Cancel 67 Planned Rallies”

    AUG 23, 2017

    “A slew of right-wing and white supremacist rallies have been canceled following the massive nationwide protests against white supremacy over the weekend. On Saturday, up to 40,000 people poured into the streets around the Boston Common to protest a planned so-called “free speech rally” by white nationalists. The flood of counter-protesters so overwhelmed the white nationalist rally that aerial photos show only a handful of the extremists even showed up, and that they spent the day huddled in a gazebo on the Boston Common. Thousands more rallied over the weekend against white supremacy in dozens of other U.S. cities. In response, far-right and white nationalist groups have canceled 67 upcoming rallies, saying the protests will instead be held online.” (https://www.democracynow.org/2017/8/23/headlines)

    • anonymous[This anonymous is Elaine] proudly displays her hatred of the 1st Amendment w/ this alt left link. Be careful what you wish for Elaine.

  6. What is the Taney Court known for?
    Taney was born in Maryland, where his family owned a tobacco farm and were slave owners. The Supreme Court in a 7 to 2 decision ruled against freeing Dred Scott from slavery for three reasons: Blacks, regardless of whether they are free or slaves, are not and could not be citizens.

    But back to business and foreign opinions disregarded Mickey the term native Indians would also be banned. indians derives from indigenous meaning ‘native to’ meaning ‘born in’ and is latin in origin but throught he Spanish became indigene and to English indian. Most ‘indian’ tribes genesis refers to themselves as ‘the people.’ in translation

    By definition none of them are Indian as the various known ways the Americas and the world itself was populated is continued migration to unsettled un populated lands. The last I know of the big Island off the east coast of Africa was completely unpopulated with ‘humans’ until after the arrival of European Settler at present the only area left with no native population is the Chagos Archipelago in center of Indian Ocean.

    Which brings me to the subcontinent of India.. the name came from the Indus River and the name of the Ocean from the name of country which is actually Bharat and is a corruption of the word Sindhu.

    The two have nothing in common except indigene meaning native to certainly appies to both.

  7. Just a thought, President Trump should sell off (or give away) all of the federal lands with historic significance to private historical societies in the name of historical preservation. That way none of the local politicians have to lose sleep over historical preservation or trendy historical purge.

      • I have an idea, Louise. Why don’t you start your own “I Hate Trump” blog? Then you could fill it with hateful diatribes against the President who was elected by 60+ million Americans. Maybe Natacha, Ken, David Benson, “this is to Mark M”, assorted anons, and others could chime in.
        Then you wouldn’t need to throw your meaningless vitriol into Every Single Thread on this blog.

        Promise me you will at least think about it. FFS

  8. Instead of removing Taney’s statue, I say add a statue of Thurgood Marshall next to it – two Marylanders, both on the Supreme Court, both forces in their own time. Addition rather than subtraction would shift the focus from honoring Taney to representing how far the state has come in the intervening years, an important historical story. Of course, such a logical solution has three major drawbacks: (1) it would deprive the mob of satisfaction, (2) it would demonstrate the moral depravity of the mob’s actions, and (3) it would prevent politicians from pandering to the mob.

    • Addition rather than subtraction would shift the focus from honoring Taney to representing how far the state has come in the intervening years, an important historical story.

      Precisely! Since our founding, we have been on a path of forming a more perfect union. We have accomplished much and your suggestion would be evidence of that journey.

    • Vince, GREAT comment and analysis. PC is about control and diversion. It’s all the left has right now and their PC insanity is what elected Trump and damn well may reelect him, in spite of himself.

    • https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/md-politics/md-senate-presid…statue/2017/08/17/41833b12-8390-11e7-ab27-1a21a8e006ab_story.html

      “Maryland placed the Taney statue on the lawn of the capitol complex in 1872. Since then, it has added interpretive plaques explaining the Dred Scott opinion and erected a statue of Thurgood Marshall, a Baltimore native who was the first African American Supreme Court justice, on the opposite side of the State House. The trust agreed last year to erect statues in the State House honoring abolitionists Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass.

      “Benjamin Jealous, the former NAACP president who is seeking the Democratic nomination to challenge Hogan in 2018, says he would push to take down all Confederate statues in the state if he is elected.“There’s no room for symbols of hate in our state,” he said.”

        • I think she “links” because she can not form an argument on her own, and then rationally justify it. Like many Liberals, she accepts the OPINIONS of others as facts, and then follows them. That is why sooo many Liberals get so emotional, or as they like to say it, empathetic. Because all they have are their “feelings.” And when you dispute them, or disagree with them, it is received as a personal attack on them, and their very identity.

          That is why you see so many more Liberals out in the streets whooping it up in the mob de jour, than you do Conservative Right Wing types.

          Squeeky Fromm
          Girl Reporter

    • Thurgood Marshall in his last years was a triumph of the taxidermist’s art, something he himself acknowledged (he told his clerks, “If I die, just prop me up and keep on voting me”). Any depiction of Marshall should include a pack of Winston’s, a bottle of Wild Turkey, and a racecard w/ parimutuel tickets.

  9. Daniel 2:21

    And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding:

    The Scriptures show that while God sometimes does indeed decide who will be the leading official of a nation, He also allows people to pick national leaders whose values are not those taught in the Holy Scriptures, even to their detriment. He once criticized His own anciently chosen people with these words: “Israel has rejected the good … They set up kings, but not by Me” (Hosea 8:4). The lesson is plain: God only approves of those rulers who have not “rejected the good” as He defines it.

  10. After eight poisonous years of Obama and his minions, the radical Left has been allowed to become emboldened by its community organizer. Emboldened, much like the Taliban, to destroy and dismantle anything and everything with which it has been indoctrinated to take offense. . .knowing, full well, that the rest of the sheeple will stand, idly by, in silence. Frightened into silence and paraylzed with fear. Silence, as works of art and monuments depicting history. . .and which that history entails. . .the good, the bad and the oh, so ugly. . .are ripped from their bearings. Dismantled. Destroyed. Yes, as in the words of the hallowed Reverend Wright, Obama’s idol. . .the chickens have come home to roost. A society, motphed into one now run by the patients of the asylum, where the majority have been intimidated to the point of acquiescence. Where we dare not speak out against these acts. . .dare not voice our communal outrage. . .over the effort to rewrite history and to destroy artifacts. . .for fear of being labeled a racist. . .a Nazi. . .a white supremacist. Will JT, before his prestigious law school, publicly speak and give a lecture about the insanity that is the effort to rewrite history and rid this country of any vestiges deemed offensive to a tiny minority of lunatics who inhabit our great nation? Anyone up for a wager? I am, as it will never, ever happen. He wants and needs to keep his job. Can’t say that I blame him, to a certain extent; however, all that evil needs to prevail is for men, with a voice and a platform, to remain silent.

  11. These statues should stay and have attached to them a ‘complete’ explanation of the person and events they represent. A statue of Taney with today’s opinions of his racist views would serve the greater good. Taking it out of public view removes the controversy. That’s when the nazis and white supremacists crawl out from under their rocks.

    The most artistic and sensitive manner something like this was treated, unfortunately only for a limited time, was a statue of Louis Riel on the front lawn of the Parliament Buildings in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Riel was hung for his part in leading rebellions of Metis and Indians against the government of Canada in the later part of the 19th Century. There were many battles and many on both sides were killed. Riel is considered by some a hero but officially an anarchist and traitor. A life-size statue was erected and placed inside a circular walled in space. From the front and sides it was a great column of stone with a bronze plaque. The wall held an opening in the rear where one could enter and view the statue of the hero/traitor. Unfortunately political correctness caught up with this genius and the statue was removed leaving only the column.

  12. Here’s a question that you might ask yourself: if I were a member of the oppressed group (blacks, for Taney) how might I feel, having to continually look up to the honored figure on the pedestal?

    • how might I feel, having to continually look up to the honored figure on the pedestal?

      That depends: do any members of this oppressed group possess critical-thinking skills?

    • salamander – Perhaps the oppressed group could consider the whole person, not just one legal decision? Just spitballin’ here.

  13. The Ninth Circuit courthouse should be next. Raze it to the ground. More bad decisions have come from there than any appellate court in the nation.

  14. Two reactions:

    First, let the Pinkos self-immolate on this subject. The majority of Americans do not support the censorship movement and that non support is slowly turning to anger and disgust.

    Second, there is a strong lesson in the Taney memorial; the Supreme Court is not infallible and momentary passions are frequently wrong – as shown by both the Dredd Scott decision and the Taney memorial action.

    • chiguy, They are not committed at all, and certainly not like the self immolating Buddhist monks during Vietnam. However, if Nancy Pelosi ever took that step, I would pay 6 figures to watch.

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